Unit 9 Essay

Unit 9 – computer Networks

Assignment 1 – Networking Theory

Task 1

PAN – Is short for Personal Area Network it is a Network which is used for personal devices for example a home will use a PAN network it is used for devices up to 10metres in range and also connect Bluetooth devices like apple watches to phone the protocol for Bluetooth is 802.15 which is what the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers which has named it . The two categories of 802.15 is called the TG4 and TG3.

The TG4 version gives data speeds of 20 Kbps – 250 Kbps while TG3 version supports data ranging from 11Mbps – 55 Mbps.

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LAN – Local Area Network that covers a small geographical area LANs are normally used in schools and small businesses they normally use Ethernet cables to connect to the network since it has faster data speeds they use the protocol 802.3 which is a method of packet based physical communication for a Lan network which is govern by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers which specifies the 802.

3 is used for the physical media and working characteristics of the Ethernet has a data rate of around 10 Mbps .

MAN – Metropolitan Area Network is a network that links users with resources in an area that it bigger than a LAN geographical but smaller than a WAN geographical area it was established in 2001 to connect LANs in a metropolitan area. The protocol for MAN is 802.3 is the same protocol for LAN network but it is controlled by the Metro Ethernet Forum and it is defined by five different aspect that makes it different from carrier ethernet from Lan based Ethernet, the five attributes are standardized services, scalability, reliability, quality of service and service management

Wireless – it allows devices to connect to the internet which they can exchange data with multiples device at once which creates a network the protocol for wireless is 802.11. It is owned by the Wi-Fi Alliance group which is a company which is hardworking to male sure that the Wi-Fi products meet the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers set of 802.11 wireless standards the 802.11 protocol has different versions for different speeds and frequency like the 802.11ah is to create extended range Wi-Fi networks that will go beyond the typical networks in the 2.4GHz and 5GHz space with the data speeds up to 347Mbps

WAN – Wide Area Network it connects lots of LANs over a large geographical area this will ensure that different Lans can communicate together like share resources the internet is a WAN the protocol they use is carrier ethernet it is the same format as ethernet

Task 2 – P2 why different standards and protocol are necessary

Protocols are different rules that govern network operations or how the network function and how communication is carried out in a network, if protocols didn’t exist people would be trying to communicate with each other like sharing or receiving resources/files or data would be difficult because it would all be in different languages trying to communicate together at once. A protocol makes it possible for the devices to be operating in the same language when communicating to each device or to send or receive data. There are different protocols use for different things in a network for example the TCP/IP which stands for the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol is a set of instruction for how devices on the network should be connected on the network the TCP part is where it manages the separation of files into data packets so it can be sent across the network when it nearly reaches its destination it will then reassembling the packets when it then reaches the final destination the packets are given the IP part and address to reach it destination. protocol is the Hypertext Transfer Protocol it is used by web browsers to allow users to access their websites it allows the browsers to communicates with a web server there is a protocol It is basically the same as the normal the S stand for secure but it will encrypt and decrypts web pages by using the protocol for example banks or website that allows users to enter personal details will uses this protocol so no-one else can intercept the data as it is communicating with the web pages even if a hacker got the information he would not be able to read it since it is encrypted. FTP is the File Transfer Protocol is use with the POP protocol to allow files across a network .POP3 Post Office Protocol is used to recover emails from a server it will do it buy by an email server which will receives an email from a user where it will be held on a server then the user or client will check their mailbox on the server and downloads using this protocol when the email is downloaded from the server it is then deleted from the server. IMAP is the Internet Message Access Protocol it is basically the same as POP3 as the way it works but the difference is that when the email is downloaded it is not deleted from the server until the user want to. SMTP is short for Simple Mail Transfer protocol governs the sending of emails using a network. DHCP is short for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used to manage the distribution of IP address in a network and is also used to configure the subnet mask, default gateway and the DNS server the router acts as a DHCP server or a Computer in a larger network lastly the Telnet protocol is also a network virtual terminal protocol that support a two way interactive communication for computer on the internet and LANs. The

TCP/IP and OSI models are layered models that specifies which protocols will operate at each layer in the TCP/IP model they have 4 layers and it supervises the separation of data into packets it is operated/controlled by the IETF the top layer is the application layer is used to collect and distribute data in a suitable format for transmission the protocols that it uses are the DNS, DHCP, FTP. The transport layer which is used to establish and ending connections between devices it will do it by the router also the Transport layer will establish the speed of the data which can be sent or received the protocol it uses are the TCP, UDP. Internet layer/network layer it allows the data to be exchange on different network it is where the IP is used to authorize a route for the data destination of the packet the protocol is uses is the IPv4, IPv6, ICMPv4 and the ICMPv6 the last layer is the Data Link layer is used to the media that is used to send data in a local network the protocol it uses is the PPP, Frame Relay and the Ethernet

Task 3 – M1 comparing peer to peer and client server network

Peer to peer network all devices on the network can act like a server or a client

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