Tracing the Historical Contribution of Kapampangan Generals during Philippine Revolution (1896-1902) Essay

Philippine Revolution is also known as the Tagalog”Spanish war and it brought into Philippine-American war. It was started in the year of 1896. Because of struggles and a bloody war between Filipino revolutionaries and the colonizers, many Filipino craved for the country’s freedom. As the fight increased, Kapampangan also served and joined the war. There were pure Kapampangan who became generals during Philippine revolution. There is General Jose Alejandrino who was born in Binondo, Manila but his parents grew and born in Arayat, Pampanga while General Servillano Aquino from Angeles City.

Another two brave men are General Maximino Hizon who born in Mexico, Pampanga and lastly, General Francisco Makabulos from Tarlac. These Kapampangan Generals were honored and often mentioned at some books especially in Philippine history, however, there were only limited information on how they fought for the independence of the Filipino and limited details on how they were known. This study will focus on tracing their contribution and struggles during Philippine Revolution because unfortunately, their braveness was becoming silent as if they did not contribute in the history of the Philippines.

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This paper is an amalgamation of local history and oral. Keywords: Philippine Revolution, Kapampangan generals, FreedomBackground of the StudyThe Treaty of Paris an agreement concluding the Spanish-American War was signed by John Hay on December 10, . January 23, 1899 when established the first Republic of the Philippines in Malolos but Americans did not notice and identified. So, the forth of February in the year of 1899 an American soldier named William Grayson killed one of the Filipino soldiers and became the reason for having Philippine-American War. Pampanga is located at Central Luzon in the Philippines. This province was established along the banks or pampang of a great river that was to shape its history the Rio Grande de la Pampanga . In April 1899, the Americans finally reached the Pampanga. Filipino started planning and rearranging their loyalty again. Some were stayed at Aguinaldo’s side and some were supported the American organization and government. According to a historian, John A. Larkin stated that around this period, one group expanded their concept and conclude that Pampanga belonged to a larger entity, a nation that reached beyond ethno-linguistic borders of any one area” Partaking this vision were the generals Jose Alejandrino, Servillano Aquino, Maximino Hizon and Francisco Makabulos.A few years before the outbreak of the Revolution, Jose Rizal came in Tarlac and Pampanga to visit and meet his friend. But suddenly their houses were burned, and some were banished. Due to the incidents they perceived that Jose Rizal was already being surveillance by the authorities. Some of Pampanga’s elite volunteered to join to the group of Andres Bonifacio and later to Emilio Aguinaldo and some chose to remain neutral. Others might say that Kapampangans were conceited but if it’s about their country against others they will surely support their land like in the past (Philippine revolution), wealthy Kapampangans supported the government of Aguinaldo. Since Kapampangan’s struggling a lot against the conquerors like human abused and demeaning for their rights still, made great sacrifices to preserve and defend their freedom by voluntary joining a secret revolutionary and bravery served in different ways. And it was proven for how many trials of foreign conquerors that’s why Kapampangan Generals even other revolutionaries also had a central role in the society and Philippine history. There were many heroes during the Philippine revolution. Among them were the generals who led the fight for freedom . They unveil bravery and fortitude during this period in our history when our people took up arms to fight for our freedom. In particular to pose the challenges to historians to identify the Filipino generals who remain until today nameless, forgotten and unsung, so that they accorded the accolade long due them.Kapampangan joined the revolution and answered the call of duty to their beloved country and motherland. These are well known Kapampangan generals on that time; Jose Alejandrino, Servillano Aquino, Maximino Hizon and Francisco Makabulos. Those are the Kapampangan generals that might know by the people of past and history but may be forgotten by the people of present, and coming generation which is the Kapampangan generals don’t deserve.General Servillano Aquino y Aguilar was a Kapampangan general in late Philippine Revolution against Spaniard and the whole Philippine-American war. General Maximino Hizon became general of Pampanga in the year of 1898. And General Francisco Makabulos, declared as a Kapampangan general during Philippine revolution and lastly, General Jose Alejandrino; who was rose and appointed to the position of general in 1898.The Spanish and American influences on the culture of Filipinos lasted for almost many years in the Philippines. At that time or early 1900’s, the peace movement started, Filipino begun rekindling again and the nationalism of the Filipino remain undaunted. Courageous Filipino writers went to all kind of literature like novels, essay, poetry, stories, news and etc. Filipino writers clearly writing depicted and represent their longing of independence and most especially their love of country. Statement of the ProblemDespite the studies that were made about Philippine-American war still the researchers looking for more detailed and all-inclusive about life of the Kapampangan generals during the said Period. For that reason, here is the main question What were their roles and contribution during their regime? and together with the sub-questions for the topic: 1. Who were the Kapampangan generals during the Philippine Revolution?2. What are their struggles and experiences they’ve encountered during Philippine Revolution?3. Why the memories of Kapampangan generals remain silent nowadays?Significance of the StudyThe topic is all about the Kapampangan generals who show braveness and willingness to fight for their beloved country and how Filipinos care and crave for freedom. However, an inclusive about the historical contribution, and well detailed struggles of heroes are still incompletely stated especially how they become real generals in the year of 1896-1902. Though, book of their biography already published and scattered in all schools, libraries and bookstores still not specified and focused on time of reigning as general during the Philippine Revolution. This paper therefore identified and stated their historical contribution in our country throughout the period. The researcher also included their biggest role as a Kapampangan general for the readers have an additional insight to be alive and maintain the history of the men who fought for Filipino’s freedom. Through seeking for the fact, this study may completely help and serve as supplementary to bring a new knowledge for the people who are concerned and for further research in the same topic and events. Furthermore, this study will beneficial to everyone since Kapampangan generals were introduced and their way of ruling their organization. Somehow, readers may learn and discover inspiration how to be more effective leaders by following and studying their ways.Scope and LimitationThis paper identified and presents the life history, struggles and achievements of the Kapampangan generals in the said period. It also focused on the revolutionary year of the Philippines between the year of 1896-1902. This paper was informed by the books, journals, articles and interview from an historian’s expert in Kapampangan leader’s history and revolution.

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