Satrohan Tribhowan January 02, 2019Government Mr. GrossmanHow has the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Andrew Jackson expanded the Executive Branches Powers and the powers of the President? According to the White House, the power of the Executive Branch is vested in the President of the United States, who also acts as head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and many other roles in which a leader takes/represents. The President is responsible for implementing and enforcing the laws written by Congress and, to that end, appoints the heads of the federal agencies, including the Cabinet.
The Cabinet and federal agencies are responsible for the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws. These departments and agencies have missions and responsibilities, they are all to the disposal of the President. Even though the privileges given to the President, may seem a tad overwhelming, the founder and creators of the Constitution, placed emphasis on the limiting and controlling of the President’s office and Branch, from becoming too powerful and controlling.
As a result of the British control of the thirteen colonies, followed by the harsh treatment, they acquired from the King, the founders and creators of the Constitution agreed, that it is of their duty to prevent, the new USA from becoming a monarchy or totalitarian government. However, as the United States of America develops and ages, the people, politician, and President’s oversaw the need for change was needed. The Country demands to inaugurate a slight government change that would establish a stronger control of the people and it’s land, therefore, expanding the Executive branches power would be the best the best result. The presidency of Franklin D, Roosevelt and Andrew Jackson with many other, expanded the powers vested to the President’s Office in many ways that may have sometimes conflicted with the laws and rules set forth. Despite, the three branches of government creation, with the Legislative Branch being the most powerful, under Article II of the Constitution, the President is responsible for the execution and enforcement of the laws created by Congress. Control of the fifteen executive departments ” each led by an appointed member of the President’s Cabinet ” carry out the day-to-day administration of the federal government. Additionally, the President is vested in the powers as follows: Chief of Branch Power; Military Powers; Diplomatic Powers; Appointment Power; Economy Power; State Powers and finally Legislative Powers. Therefore the President can drastically change the way the country operates, even though, Congress is present. According to Miller Center, President Jackson entered the White House with an undetermined and unpredictable policy agenda beyond a vague desire for reformation and a resolution to settle the relationships between the states and the Indian tribes within their borders. On these matters, he moved swiftly and decisively. However, earlier, Jackson was known as a soldier who led, in the War of 1812, Battle of Tohopeka in mid-1814, Battle of New Orleans in 1815, and finally and majorly the invasion of Florida. His call to invade Florida lead the Spanish government to vehemently protested which sparked a heated debate in Washington. Though many argued for Jackson’s censure, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams defended the general’s actions, and in the end, they helped speed the American acquisition of Florida in 1821, referenced from History. Jackson’s popularity led to suggestions that he run for president. In which he did and won. According to The Week and the Miller Center, Jackson had stampeded the John Q. Adams bureaucracy with fraud and with working against his campaign. As President, he initiated immediate removals of high ranking government officials including Washington bureau chiefs, land and customs officers, and federal marshals and attorneys. Jackson claimed to be purging the corruption, laxity, and arrogance that came with long tenure, and restoring the opportunity for government service to the citizenry at large through rotation in office.’ (Miller Center) Under Jackson’s Presidency, he appointed employee that he is familiar with, moreover a supporter of his. For example, his most dreadful appointee was an old army comrade and political sycophant named Samuel Swartwout. Against all advice, Jackson made him collector of the New York City customhouse, where the government collected nearly half its annual revenue. Even though Mr. Swartwout was a friend of Jackson, he betrayed him by escaping with more than $1 million dollars, a staggering sum for that day. Though it is true and bonded with this man, he never expected it to occur in this format or way, he was of close relations with him and the appointment of familiar employees of his, will allow his job as president to be much easier, but, with the lack of his knowledge, his friends abused his friendship and loyalty to Jackson. Which became known as the spoil system. Jackson would appoint common men, that supported him, even if they had little knowledge about their duties, sometimes they were unable to complete their task due to the lack of intellect. Therefore, the implementation of this system, under Jackson’s Administration lead to the expansion of the President’s power because this action depicts the ability to create a system, even if it may be illegal. This shows the power in which the president holds, the ability to micromanage bureaucracies during his presidency. Another action during the Presidency of Andrew Jackson is the relocations of Ameri – Indians known as the Trail of Tears. According to The Hermitage, Jackson also adopted and supported the removing Indian tribes in the United States to the west of the Mississippi River as one of his reforms. For many years, Jackson had protested the practice of treating with Indian tribes as if they were foreign nations. Jackson did not hate Indians as a race, as a matter of fact, was friendly with many individual Indians and had taken home an Indian orphan from the Creek campaign to raise in his household as a companion to his adopted son. But Jackson believed that the population of Indian was lower than that of whites and that for their own survival, tribes who were pressed by white settlement must assimilate as individuals or remove to the west out of harm’s way. He also believes that the western lifestyle would benefit the Indians more, since, they are familiar with many agriculture and farming methods and technique. Confident that he knows Indians best, Jackson, employed as an Indian negotiator from his army years, who used threats and bribery to procure cessions of land. Moreover, Jackson and his liaison regarded tribes resident within the states as wards of the government and tenants-at-will. In the matter of time, inherent conflict between tribal and state authority arises. The Indian nation has acquired many of the attributes of white civilization, therefore, claiming sovereign authority over its territory. These nations countered by asserting state jurisdiction over their Indian domains. Which, the Jackson administration supported and allow the opportunity of the Administration to facilitate the removal. Jackson induced Congress in 1830 to pass a bill empowering him to lay off new Indian homelands west of the Mississippi, exchange them for current tribal holdings, purchase the Indians’ capital improvements, and pay the costs of their westward transportation. This Indian Removal Act was the only major piece of legislation passed at Jackson’s behest in his eight years as President. This act led to the forceful removal of Indian to the West, the trail of tears, that provided provisions that were not upheld. This action expanded the power of the Presidency because it was an act to spread and diffuse the population to occupy part of the US territory, which would be fit for the Indians. In addition, the public agreed with Jackson to make the move since they saw no benefit of the Indians in metropolitan cities, which instead could have been perfect and a great combination for Europeans. This action led by the 7th, Andrew Jackson, was not only unconstitutional and inhumane but immoral due to the number of deaths caused. The trail of tears became a major historical movement that pointed out and gave the American people, the ascendancy and commands the Presidents have.Jackson exhibits his Presidential powers during the establishment of the 2nd Bank of America. The Bank of the United States was a quasi-public corporation chartered by Congress to manage the federal government’s finances and provide a sound national currency. The federal government owned one-fifth of the stock and the President of the United States appointed one-fifth of the directors. Like other banks chartered by state legislatures, the Bank lent for profit and issued paper currency backed by specie reserves. Its notes were federal legal tender. By law, it was also the federal government’s own banker, arranging its loans and storing, transferring, and disbursing its funds. The Bank’s national reach and official status gave it enormous leverage over the state banks and over the country’s supply of money and credit. With a corrupt system and management, the bank was growing downhill, as calls arose for revocation. (Miller Center)Unannounced to his supporters, Jackson attacked the Bank in his very first message to Congress in 1829. Biddle, an American financier who served as the third and last president of the Second Bank of the United States, attempted to conciliate him, but Jackson’s opposition to renewing the charter (bank) seemed immovable. He was convinced that the Bank was not only unconstitutional, as Jefferson and his followers had long maintained, but that its concentrated financial power represented a dire threat to popular liberty. Senators Henry Clay and Daniel Webster decided to ratify the bill but Jackson denied and veto it. Jackson realized their important role in the U.S. economy but his distrust in banks, in general, led him to believe the Bank of the United States held too much power and could wield it at any moment to ruin the U.S. economy. Furthermore, he saw the Bank as a threat to national security since its stockholders were mainly foreign investors with allegiances to other governments. Jackson displayed his federal power in securing the interest of the nation and expanded the powers of the president by showing the people the objective of a veto and the reason a veto is fit for the president to have. Moreover, vetoing the recharter was the best decision because it would have caused a deflation and possibly a depression in this country since Jackson decided that it is of his best interest to pay off all of the US’s debt.In 1832, Congress passed a new tariff, that would reduce some rates but continued the protectionist principle. However, South Carolina’s legislature followed up with initiative from advancing the collection of federal custom revenues at the state’s ports and to defend the state with arms against federal retreat. In late 1832, South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1832 and threatened secession. Jackson rejected these ideas and promised the use of force if South Carolina disobeyed the law. Moreover, Jackson responded with two solutions, first he urged Congress to reduce the tariff further, also, he asked for strengthened authority to enforce the revenue laws. Jackson’s actions prevented a break in the union as well as setting precedents that Abraham Lincoln would later use to oppose secession.