QuestionToday, steel production is an index of national prosperity and the basis of mass production in many other industries such as shipbuilding, automobiles, construction, machinery, tools, as well as industrial and domestic equipment. (Masaitis, 2011) According to Deputy International Trade and Industry Minister Datuk Chua Tee Yong, the steel industry is still important to Malaysia and will continue to be so in the future. (Khoo, 2017) A safe working environment for all the employees and an accident free working place is the top most priority for the management of an iron and steel plant.
Historically, iron and steel making consisted of dangerous processes and accidents were always considered inevitable. Today, many steel organizations in the world recognize that this is no longer an appropriate statement for a modern and technically advanced steel industry. (SATYENDRA, 2015)a) Based on the scenario above, analyse why is steel organizations in the world say the dangerous processes and accidents of steel plant is no longer inevitable. (9 marks)b) Accident in steel plant such as gas pipeline explosion, spilt of molten metal can killed many people in a very short time.
i) Identify the possible causes of accident in steel plant. (8 marks)ii) As an engineer, what can you do so that the accident in plant can be reduced? (8 marks)SolutionPart Suggested Solutions Marks(a)[9marks] Any reasonable answer can be accepted. Implement Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA)- Provides the legislative framework for the safety, health and welfare among all Malaysian workforces to secure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work against hazards and risks arising out of the activities of person at work. (UTM, 2014)- The program is designed as a guided process to assist employers in recognizing potential hazards before an accident can occur and to help provide managers and employees with the knowledge and tools needed to prevent injuries, illness, and fatalities. (PAYCHEX, 2018)Each point 1 mark.Each explanation 1 mark. Implement 5S Programme- 5S Method is a standardized process that when properly implemented creates and maintains an organized, safe, clean and efficient workplace. (Quality One, 2015) – It helps to provide a safer working environment in order to reduce the chances of occurring accidents such as falling.- All machinery and equipment used in plant operations, whether mobile or immobile, need to be kept in top condition at all times. (GaoDeng, 2018) Employed Professional Safety Manager- All dangerous parts of machinery and equipment, including lifts, conveyors, long travel shafts and gearing on overhead cranes, should be securely guarded. (Masaitis, 2011)- A regular system of inspection, examination and maintenance is necessary for all machinery and equipment of the plant, particularly for cranes, lifting tackle, chains and hooks. (Masaitis, 2011) Training and education programme- Workers training are essential to enforce the important of wearing personal protective equipment during working hours as well as to address hazards in an environment. (Masaitis, 2011) – Training on first aid procedures should be mandatory for every employee in steel plants. (GaoDeng, 2018) Prepared Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)- SOP contain the action and escape plan, safety tips, plant shutdown procedures and details of the plant safety officers who can be contacted at the time of emergency. (GaoDeng, 2018)- Mock drills and simulated evacuation procedures should be carried out at regular intervals to keep the employees prepared. Safety audits must also be carried out at regular intervals. (GaoDeng, 2018)(b) (i)[8marks] Any reasonable answer can be accepted. Falling- Steel work often involves significant heights, uneven ground and obstructed walkways. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016)- Slips, trips and falls are the number one cause of injuries among steel workers worldwide. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016)Each point 1 mark.Each explanation 1 mark. Toxic Emission- Carbon monoxide sometimes emanates or leaks from the tops or bodies of blast furnaces or from the many gas pipelines inside plants, accidentally causing acute carbon monoxide poisoning. (Masaitis, 2011)- Most cases of such poisoning occur during work around blast furnaces, especially during repairs. Carbon monoxide poisoning may also result from gas released from water-seal valves or seal pots in the steel-making plants or rolling mills. (Masaitis, 2011) Heavy Machining- Mechanical transport is essential in iron and steel manufacturing but exposes workers to repeating lifting, bending and other forms of exertion. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016)- When workers perform strenuous tasks day in and day out, year after year, their bodies wear down. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016)- Back, neck, knee and shoulder injuries are especially prevalent among steel workers. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016) Noise- Steel mills and construction sites are not quiet environments. Hearing loss is common among steel workers, especially when proper ear protection isn’t used religiously.- Continuous harsh noise also takes a psychological toll, leading to fatigue and anxiety. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016) Heavy lifting- Overhead travelling cranes are found in almost all areas of steel works. Most large works also rely heavily on the use of fixed-rail equipment and large industrial tractors for transporting materials. (Masaitis, 2011)- It also contributes to numerous injuries and fatalities. Despite ample warnings, thorough training and built-in safeguards, accidents still happen. People cut corners, equipment deteriorates and safety mechanisms fail. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016) Vibration- Many steel workers use heavy machinery or power tools on a daily basis.- Long-term exposure to vibration from this equipment can cause nerve damage, especially in the hands and fingers.- It can also wear down tendons and ligaments, leading to chronic pain and decreased mobility. (Shollenberger Januzzi & Wolfe, 2016)(b)(ii)[8marks] Any reasonable answer can be accepted.