Q1: Coordination is a process of management because it is applicable in all sort of business whether it is professional, personal or any conflict between two parties etc. Therefore, without it no once can achieve the desired targets smoothly.It is defined as a process where efforts bring together for establishing harmony and coherence among the different stakeholders, organizations and activities with a purpose to achieve a targeted objectives or goals.There are two main types of coordination which are following:1: Internal Coordination: -It is a process of forming an unanimity between the organization’s departments, their heads and employees.
It is established for achieving the integrated goals which is connected to planning, leading, controlling, performance and implementation.It is further divided into two types i.e. horizontal and vertical coordination. Horizontal Coordination:A flat structured process between different departments, units and acts like a one team where control is shared generally based on skills. It refers to the status of same as coordination between department heads and supervisors such as HR, operation, finance, monitoring unit and security etc.
Vertical Coordination:A process of interrelated to the next or coordination between different levels within organization where it ensures that all level acts in harmony and in accordance of organization’s policies. It is a top to down management structure i.e. coordination of the activities of program manager, project coordinator, project officer, field coordinators and below.2: External Coordination: -Coordination for any issue/task outside the organization with different audience, government, community and other stakeholders is called external coordination.Q2:To fill a gap of trust deficit between different stakeholders is a challenging job but it needs dedication, commitment and transparency in roles. Therefore, to fill this gap, I will suggest the following. Firstly, identification of the stakeholders like member of National Assembly Senators etc., community (elders/maliks and religious people) and government authorities are required. Then the second step is capacity building of identified stakeholders regarding the new system. Once capacity is built then the it automatically builds the relationship between service providers and service receivers. Former FATA and present system have a lack of governance, judiciary and policing in full pace. Therefore, people were aware and familiar with previous system and the new system will take time. So, it must be widely circulated to aware the masses about its benefits because they are not aware. People should be engaged through social mobilization and giving them the importance of their needs and priorities at a gross root level. At gross root level it can be achieved through the Local Government system which will further strengthen the communities and will bind the state institutions and citizens. Provincial elections in erstwhile FATA can also play a very pivotal role in removing the trust deficit between the main stakeholders in the merged districts of KP. Initially the citizens have no representation at provincial level because they were completely dependent on Federal where their elected members had no access right for bringing any law for the welfare of their citizens. Therefore, provincial election will fill a gap to great extent. One of the most important things in the current scenario which has been missed by government regarding the merger of erstwhile into KP is the lack of wide publicity regarding the reforms. Citizens are still not aware about its benefits. Therefore, mass media can play its role to indoctrinate the people regarding its benefits and future prospect.Q3:In a former FATA, humanitarian and developmental activities are itself a challenge but it can be achieved if action plan is completely based on the realities and grounds that what is actually needed and how it will be implemented. Therefore, to identify the targeted beneficiaries in the decision-making process through the following tools can be achieved for the effectiveness of the program.1- Participatory Rural Approach:Through this approach communities can be contacted at large where they can share their views unanimously regarding any development and it increase the trust level.2- Focal Groups Discussion:Through this approach different people can be contacted at large where one can know about the needs and requirements from targeted people.3- Need Assessments:Its not possible to achieve or implement something without proper assessment and it is also witness that many of the activities in different areas have been implemented without proper need assessment which further produce many grievances at implementation stage. Therefore, a proper need assessment is required for getting the program goals.4- Community Mobilization:Community mobilization is itself a process which strengthened the capacity of community regarding any activity. Once the community is mobilized before any implementation or parallel during implementation then it will bring a positive and good impacts.5- Meetings with Stakeholders:Before any implementation consent of stakeholders at field level must be taken because they are closely involved in the concerned areas and they better know that what is required at field level. So, such meetings also create a harmony and coherent coordination for future’s implementation.6- Interviews:Through interviews of different people regarding any planning or implementation once can get a good stuff of information which can be proved beneficial for program’s implementation.Q4:The assigned tasks will be broken into sub-tasks and time will be allocated to each sub-task which will be prioritized. Implementation of sub-tasks will be strategized as per the ultimate goals of the assigned tasks.To successfully dealt with such deadline I will suggest the below approach. Top most priority should be set based on the need Close coordination using multiple channels for acquiring the desired objectives Transparency in roles while dealing with all the concerned In limited time, must have in-depth knowledge of prevailing situation and area. Standard operating procedures must be kept and shouldn’t violated because it will create more issuesQ5:Project Impact:A long-term change which occurs as a result of program intervention which also contributed to overall program goals. For instance, impact would be in polio program Improvement in community health Elimination of polio virusOutcome:An effect or change which program produces on the targeted communities and it can be measured which is linked to the project objectives. For instance, in polio program outcome would be: Number of reductions in polio cases in X union council Number of parents who willingly provided polio vaccines to their children as a result of mobilization campaignOutput:These are the immediate and measurable results associated with any project. It indicates what the project has achieved. For instance, in polio program the output would be: Number of parents sensitized as a result as a result of community meetings in X union council Number of children provided vaccines at X union councilInputs:The resources which organization dedicates to a program is called inputs. These resources can be a staff, financial, vehicles, equipment and logistics.