Globally, women are known for working under unfavorable work conditions and facing a lot of social and economic problems as they engage in agricultural sector whether as an individual or in a group particularly in developing countries of which Sudan is no exception. Many researchers and writers across the world concurred that women usually have limited access to various agricultural inputs to enhance their productivity and these are seeing a setback on their part when it comes to developmental agenda (Dr.
Roshan et al., 2011; FAO, Khartoum, 2015; Rekha Pande, 2000; Yemisi et al., 2009; Catherine et al., 2012; Dr. Basavaraj et al., 2018; Richa et al., 2018; Saira Akhtar et al., 2018; Mark-Paul et al., 2016; & Begum , R. et al., 2011).In Sudan during the crisis the situation worsen further for women in terms of production inputs such as land, credits, tools, seeds, and fertilizers among others inputs due to the war as remote parts of the country was not accessible because of insecurity and this as affected food production which leads to food insecurity in the country (FAO, Khartoum, 2015).
In many instances, women were regarded as inferior in the community particularly in issues relating to land acquisition whether as inheritance or through legal land registration and since land is one of the immediate components to foster agricultural development lacking it limits their prudent contributions in agricultural sector which result in food insure and many writers attribute that land right are given to their male counterparts as family heads (Catherine Ragasa et al., 2012). This chapter cites itself on the background of the study, explains why the topic is of great importance to be researched, Statement of the problem, the motivation of the study, research objectives, and research question(s) and the scope of the study. Statement of the Problem Agriculture plays vital roles in GDP, as a stimulating force in providing raw materials, foreign exchange earnings through exports of agricultural outputs, supply of food, employment opportunities particularly to rural inhabitants, and diversification of markets all of which encourages economic development and living standard of each country’s population (Simon Kuznets, 1968 Johnston BF et al., 1961). But low productivity in agricultural sector which leads to reduction in GDP and slow down economic growth couples with food insecurity and malnutrition in children and starvation in many developing countries of which Sudan is no exception has become an international issue and many planners are working very hard to fix these problems but most of their effects go in vain.Therefore, women contribution in agricultural sector is usually not taken into account seriously when discussing developmental agendas whether national, regional and at international levels and to a larger extent women are not counted as agriculture farmers and this hinders agricultural efficiency and productivity as they are not involved in decision-making and most of their work goes unnoticed and unpaid although the survival of the growing population lay in their hands (Yemisi I. Ogunlela et al., 2009; Saira Akhtar et al., 2011).This study cites itself on the role of women in the agricultural sector not only as sources of food supply for survival but how their contribution could lead to a reshaping of the deteriorating economic setback in Sudan. The empirical evidence from this study witnessed negative contribution of women directly to the national GDP of the country but indirectly their contribution is very significant in terms of food provision, family income earns, among others. The Motivation of the ResearchMany writers and researchers have conducted a studied on the impact of agriculture on GDP and the participation of women in economic growth through agriculture but none of these writers and researchers use female labor force participation in agriculture to analyze the trend in economic growth in Sudan. Since Sudan got her independence in 1956, the state of unrest started with civil wars and insurgencies which further complicate the participation of women in the agricultural sector by acquiring land, machinery, and this phenomenon exposes them to extreme poverty in the country. Moreover, from the economic perspective, it can be a good idea to investigate the roles played by women in an agricultural sector in Sudan to eradicating poverty, stimulate economic growth and providing food for their households as well as a source of income for their basic or daily needs.The scope of this study has been limited to the economy of Sudan and most of the data were collected by international organizations such as the world bank, food and agricultural organization of the united nations, united nations population division among other sources and posted onto World Bank Database. This study uses data on GDP of Sudan, GDP share of agriculture, employment in agriculture and female labor force participation in Sudan from the period (1988-2017) sourced from World Bank world development indicators. The Research ObjectivesThe main aim of this study is to investigate the impact of agriculture and the participation of women on economic growth in Sudan, and the following are main objectives:To find out the effect of the agricultural sector on the economic growth in Sudan.To find out the participation of women in the agricultural sector and how it stimulates economic growth in Sudan.Research QuestionsWhat are the impacts of the agricultural sector and the participation of women on economic growth in Sudan?