Module 6: Discussion Forum

Module 6: Discussion Forum

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Decision Making

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Critical Thinking

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Organizational Skills

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Problem Solving

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Baseline Skill

Presentation Skills

Business-Enabling Skill

Communicating Data

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Oral & Written Communication

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Project Management

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Cognitive Flexibility

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Critical Thinking

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Emotional Intelligence

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Judgment & Decision Making

Part 1: Initial Post

Materials on fallacy and content for Module 6

Refer to and reflect on the persuasive advertising strategies and the logical fallacies listed in this week’s module content.

In this discussion post (100-400 words), address the following:

Include a link to an advertisement related to your area of academic or professional interest that you have observed recently. Feel free to include links to videos, still images, or audio clips.
Discuss how several of the persuasive techniques and fallacies noted in the course content apply to the advertisement.
Describe any fallacies you located in the advertisement.
Describe how your claims logically support your thesis statement as well-supported premises.
End your post with any questions or concerns you have regarding the appeal to logic, the use of supporting evidence, the role of claims in an argument, or fallacies you might have regarding your own writing.

Part 2: Responses to Peers
After you have posted your own main response to the Discussion assignment, post at least two substantive responses, a minimum of 100 words each, to other students’ main postings, offering specific feedback about the ideas they posted. You must post your main Discussion posting before you can reply to other students.

A substantive post will do at least ONE of the following:

Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topic
Answer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructor
Provide extensive additional information on the topic
Explain, define, or analyze the topic in detail
Share an applicable personal experience
Provide an outside source (for example, a website) that applies to the topic, along with additional information about the topic or the source (please cite properly in APA)
Make an argument concerning the topic.

Module 6: Critical Thinking
Options 1 & 2: Drafting Your Portfolio Project Paper

Work through the appropriate writing process.
As you compose the draft, follow the specifications in the Portfolio Project Assignment accessible from the Module 8 folder.
Your working draft should be very close to the number of pages required for the Portfolio Project (6-8 pages), with the addition of a title page and reference page.
Your draft should cite at least eight credible sources. The CSU-Global Library is an excellent place to search for credible, scholarly sources.

Your draft must be formatted according to CSU-Global Guide to Writing & APA (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

Note that while this Critical Thinking Assignment requires that you cite at least one source for each main topic and a minimum of eight sources total, you are not required to include all sources that will be cited in the final version of your Portfolio Project. In other words, you may add more sources to your work prior to the final delivery of the Portfolio Project at the end of Week 8.

Note as well that for this Critical Thinking Assignment, you will not be graded on the quality and depth of your knowledge and critical thinking as you will on the final draft of the Portfolio Project. Instead, you will be graded on proper completion of your draft per the specifications provided in this assignment description and the Module 6 Critical Thinking Rubric.

Expert Answer

Discussion Part

Fallacies and Persuasive Advertising Strategies

Advertisements or commercials use various strategies to persuade viewers to try the advertised product or service. In most cases, logical fallacies are part of the persuasion strategy (Danciu, 2014). The Colgate Sensitive Pro-relief commercial is very popular in all parts of the world (Philippines, 2013). The advert is very common in social media platforms such as YouTube and Facebook, and in TV commercials. Bandwagon is an example of a fallacy in the Colgate Sensitive Pro-relief advertisement. The advertisement targets consumers of all ages, except for young children. People from the age of ten years and above are targeted by the commercial. The fallacy in the advertisement is that since all the dentists have approved the Colgate product, the product is good or the best in the market. The dentists in the advertisement even show how the Colgate toothpaste product works (Philippines, 2013). For this reason, people are likely to believe that the product is the best since they are aware that dentists are experienced and have knowledge of the best dental products. Logical fallacies are used to promote products in advertisements and other forms of product marketing (Tindale, 2007). The Colgate Sensitive Pro-relief advertisement appeals to consumers that the product is good as it has been recommended by dental experts all over the world.


Danciu, V. (2014). Manipulative marketing: persuasion and manipulation of the consumer through advertising. Theoretical and Applied Economics, 21(2 (591)), 19-34.

Philippines, C. (2013, September 26). Get instant relief and long lasting protection with Colgate Sensitive Pro Relief! Retrieved February 18, 2019, from

Tindale, C. W. (2007). Fallacies and argument appraisal. Cambridge University Press.


Critical Thinking part

Critical Thinking: Portfolio Project Draft.



Income generally refers to people’s revenue streams from salaries, wages, rent, interest on savings accounts, dividends from stock shares, and profits made from any business. Income inequality can be explained as the extent to which income is distributed in a manner that is not even or not equitable in a population of a country, which is sometimes referred to as the gap between the rich and the poor. The income inequality in the United States has been widening significantly over the past thirty years (Saez & Zucman, 2016). The income inequality or disparity in the United States have grown to become utterly pronounced that currently, the top ten percent income earners average is nine times as much as the average of the bottom ninety percent. The citizens in the top one percent average more than forty times more income compared to the bottom ninety percent. More than a quarter of the total number of American workers earn less than $10 an hour, including people working in the service industry – fast food workers, cashiers, and nurse’s aides. The rich have continued to get richer in the United States since the financial crisis of 2008 ended (Braun, 1997). The income inequality problem in the United States is due to the lack of adequate investment in human capital. The solution to the increasing income inequality is increasing investment in human capital to improve the skills and employability of citizens.

Problem Statement

Between the year 2000 and 2006, the number of American citizens living in poverty increased by approximately 15 percent, with more than 30 million employees in the United States earning less than $10 every hour (Reinicke, 2018). A majority of these low-income employees have no health insurance, pension plans, or sick days from their organizations. As a result, the healthcare inequality that arises causes the medical care cost for all citizens to increase. These low-income earners are not in a position to afford preventive medical care, ending up in the emergency room. Their medical care cost is, therefore, passed on to Medicaid. Within the same time period, the average salaries remained unchanged, despite the productivity of organizations increasing. Income inequality is negatively related to the average educational attainment and results in slow economic growth of a country (Cingano, 2014). The income gap between the workers and the top management keeps widening over the years, with the top management-worker retirement benefit gap growing at a faster rate. Wages of low-income earners have stagnated over the past two decades, resulting in financial strife and increased crime rates as people try to make ends meet for their families. As such, there is a need to find a lasting problem to the income inequality in the United States.

Cause of the Problem

Income inequality is a result of the changing labor market and changes in the world economy. The disparity in incomes has been caused by economic and social changes that have affected the demand for and supply of labor, combined with the changes in certain wage-setting mechanisms in the labor market (Ryscavage, 2015). Changes in the world, such as technological and economic changes, are to blame for the income inequality in the United States. Technological developments have replaced millions of workers at industry and factory jobs. Workers with skills and training in the latest technology get higher paid jobs. Improvement in technology has resulted in the company’s achieving production targets with lesser employees. managers are forced to work with temporary and contract employees to keep costs down. Illegal immigration poses a problem, as illegal immigrants provide low-wage workforce due to the lack of bargaining power to ask for higher wages. The country’s current tax plan implemented by the president has benefited investors and businesses instead of the employees, resulting in structural inequality.

The income inequality that the United States faces can be traced to the ongoing shift in the economy of the world. The incomes of emerging markets and economies are increasing, with nations such as Brazil, China, and India rising to become very competitive in the world marketplace. The workforces from these countries continue to improve in terms of skills and the leaders are becoming better at management. For these reasons, wealth is quickly shifting towards these countries, with the shift being about minimizing global income inequality. As the developing countries become more developed, and as their workforce becomes more skilled and experienced, their wealth rises, taking more wealth from the developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union countries.

Solution to the Problem

The greatest contributor to the income inequality problem in the United States is the change in the world economy and wealth distribution. For this reason, it is important that the United States responds to the redistribution of global wealth. The United States government needs to ensure that the bottom bracket of low-income earners, who are generally unskilled or low-skilled, have access to education and employment training. Income inequality is the result of the failure of human capital investment to match the pace of rising demand for skills (Murphy & Topel, 2016). Therefore, investing in human capital is the only way of increasing individual wealth and improving the workforce of a country. Investment in human capital affects the supply of skills and the level of salaries that people get when employed, which have a direct effect on the levels of income (Goldin, 2016). Ensuring equity in education would ensure that all citizens achieve a minimum standard, which qualifies them for a higher wage. It is also through education that more people will acquire and develop their entrepreneurial skills. In addition to investing in human capital, the government should work on increasing access to capital to enable entrepreneurs to create wealth and more job opportunities in the United States.

Counter Argument and Rebuttal

The increasing income inequality in the United States has been blamed on the availability of cheap labor from an increased number of immigrants in the United States. It has also been blamed on the availability of cheap labor in countries such as China and India. Many people and organizations have expressed their concerns on the increasing income gap in the country, stating that the increasing number of immigrants is the leading cause of the income inequality in the country (Kraus, 2017). The argument is that an increased population results in increased availability of cheap labor in the country since companies take advantage of the situation and offer low wages and salaries for job positions (Dabla-Norris et al., 2015). The outsourcing of jobs has been blamed for low wages, with companies being accused of putting profits ahead of employees. With globalization and changes in the world economy, companies must remain competitive. American companies have to effectively compete with companies from India and China that have lower production costs as a result of cheap labor. This is the reason why many American companies choose to outsource their manufacturing and high-tech jobs.

According to Hutton (2007), “low wage competition isn’t to blame for western job losses and inequality”. In order to effectively deal with the problem of income inequality, there is a need to determine why companies are able to get cheap labor in the first place. Income inequality is a result of the changing labor market and changes in the industry and not the availability of cheap labor. It has been largely brought about by changes in technology and the world economy, and not so much by globalization or low-wage competition from the developing countries.


The government and other relevant bodies in the United States need to realize the negative effects of income inequality in the United States and take action to control its progress. Through investing in human capital and adapting to changes in the labor market, income inequality in the country can be controlled. Income inequality is one of the major economic and social problems in the United States. It is only through increasing the level of investment in human capital that this problem can be dealt with.


Braun, D. D. (1997). The rich get richer: The rise of income inequality in the United States and the world. Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Cingano, F. (2014). Trends in income inequality and its impact on economic growth.

Goldin, C. (2016). Human capital. Handbook of cliometrics, 55-86.

Murphy, K. M., & Topel, R. H. (2016). Human capital investment, inequality, and economic growth. Journal of Labor Economics, 34(S2), S99-S127.

Ryscavage, P. (2015). Income Inequality in America: An Analysis of Trends: An Analysis of Trends. Routledge.

Saez, E., & Zucman, G. (2016). Wealth inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from capitalized income tax data. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(2), 519-578.

Kraus, F. (2017). The historical development of income inequality in Western Europe and the United States. In Development of Welfare States in Europe and America (pp. 187-236). Routledge.

Dabla-Norris, M. E., Kochhar, M. K., Suphaphiphat, M. N., Ricka, M. F., & Tsounta, E. (2015). Causes and consequences of income inequality: a global perspective. International Monetary Fund.

Hutton, W. (2007, January 09). Will Hutton: Low wage competition isn’t to blame for western job losses and inequality. Retrieved February 20, 2019, from

Reinicke, C. (2018, July 19). In the US, the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer, study concludes. Retrieved February 20, 2019, from



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