Module 4

Module 4: Discussion Forum

New Foundational Skill

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Decision Making

Baseline Skill

Critical Thinking

Baseline Skill

Problem Solving

Baseline Skill

Research

Baseline Skill

Writing

Business-Enabling Skill

Communicating Data

Business-Enabling Skill

Oral & Written Communication

New Economy Skill

Cognitive Flexibility

New Economy Skill

Critical Thinking

New Economy Skill

Emotional Intelligence

New Economy Skill

Judgment & Decision Making

Part 1: Initial Post
As you prepare to make arguments in your Portfolio Project for a position, this is a good time to discuss the credibility of sources.

Reflect:
Think about the sources you are using in your paper. Why are the sources credible?

Write:
For this post, in 100-400 words, answer the following:

What specific facts are you required to know, share, and defend in your field?
What sources do you consider most credible when you defend facts and statements to someone who is questioning you about the accuracy of your claims?
How do you know these sources are credible? How do others find them credible? When you can’t find the answers you need, how do you do research to collect information to solve your problem?

Here are some examples:

Secretaries must create and keep track of schedules and other kinds of information, which they produce on request for clients or supervisors.
Financial workers must respond to auditors and advise clients about the best investment opportunities.
Salespeople must answer questions about products and defend product claims about quality and performance.
Tech-support employees explore facts surrounding each customer’s situation and troubleshoot using the process of elimination.
Managers must know all aspects of a job and ensure production requirements are met by the people under their watch.

Essentially for this assignment, discuss how you find facts, how you know they are credible, and where you might go when you need a reference or more information to solve a problem.

Part 2: Responses to Peers
After you have posted your own main response to the Discussion assignment, post at least two substantive responses, a minimum of 100 words each, to other students’ main postings, offering specific feedback about the ideas they posted. You must post your main Discussion posting before you can reply to other students.

A substantive post will do at least ONE of the following:

Ask an interesting, thoughtful question pertaining to the topic
Answer a question (in detail) posted by another student or the instructor
Provide extensive additional information on the topic
Explain, define, or analyze the topic in detail
Share an applicable personal experience
Provide an outside source (for example, a website) that applies to the topic, along with additional information about the topic or the source (please cite properly in APA)
Make an argument concerning the topic

Module 4: Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking Assignment (115 Points)

New Foundational Skill

Decision Making

Baseline Skill

Critical Thinking

Baseline Skill

Organizational Skills

Baseline Skill

Problem Solving

Baseline Skill

Writing

Baseline Skill

Presentation Skills

Business-Enabling Skill

Communicating Data

Business-Enabling Skill

Oral & Written Communication

Business-Enabling Skill

Project Management

New Economy Skill

Cognitive Flexibility

New Economy Skill

Critical Thinking

New Economy Skill

Emotional Intelligence

New Economy Skill

Judgment & Decision Making
Options 1 & 2: Annotated Outline

Submit an annotated outline of the research project that will comprise your Portfolio Project.

An annotated outline is one that provides in-text citations of sources for each of your main topics (main points were mapped out in the Module 2 Critical Thinking Assignment) and a complete Reference list at the end, all formatted in APA style.

Make sure your outline fully supports all requirements of the Portfolio Project assignment, which can be accessed in the Module 8 folder. Note that while this Critical Thinking assignment requires that you cite at least one source for each main topic and a minimum of eight sources total, you are not required this week to include all sources that will be provided with the final version of your Portfolio Project. In other words, you may add more sources to your work prior to the final delivery of the Portfolio Project due at the end of Week 8.

List your thesis statement, claims, and evidence in the following format:

Thesis statement: Write your single-sentence thesis statement here.
Claim: Write your first claim in a complete sentence here.
Evidence: Paraphrase or summarize your source and cite it here (Sample, 2016).
Evidence: Paraphrase or summarize additional sources that support this claim and cite them here as 2., 3., 4., and so on (Sample, 2016).
Evidence: If you feel the need to use a quote, “add it to the list with proper quotation marks and the appropriate in-text citation containing the page, section, or paragraph number in the original source” (Sample, 2016, p. 22).
Claim: Write your second claim in a complete sentence here.
Evidence: Paraphrase or summarize your source here (Sample, 2015).
Evidence: Continue to paraphrase and summarize your sources for each claim (Sample, 2016).
Claim: Continue to write your claims in complete sentences.
Evidence
Evidence

Requirements:

Your annotated outline should include at least five credible sources. The CSU-Global Library is an excellent place to search for credible, scholarly sources.
Provide a summary, a paraphrase, and a direct quotation for each of your sources. Please identify the summary, paraphrase, and direct quotation you would like evaluated by highlighting this section of your writing.
Your Annotated Outline should be 2-3 pages in length not counting the title and reference pages, which you must include. (annotated outline template linked below)
The annotated outline and citation formatting should conform with CSU-Global Guide to Writing & APA (Links to an external site.)

Expert Answer

Discussion Part

Introduction

In the development of academic and research papers, it is important that one uses information that is obtained from credible sources. The credibility of a reference is determined using various measures, including the authenticity of the information in it, the author’s reputation, and the publisher. In my career life, working in the pharmaceutical industry, I sometimes find myself in need of defending my claims to people who do not believe them to be true. In this discussion, I explain how I obtain information that is relevant in my field.

Discussion: Obtaining Information from Credible Sources

In the pharmaceutical and drug distribution field, I am required to have basic knowledge of the various medicines and drugs that are used for the treatment of various illnesses and conditions. I am also required to have knowledge of the preparation of various medicines and drugs that are used by customers. It is important that I have information on the side effects and usage of the medicines that I sell to customers. In order to find credible information, I rely on pharmaceutical journals and periodicals published by reputable and registered pharmaceutical companies and organizations. To support any claims that I may have or to prove the credibility of my claims, I base my claims on information provided in such publications and the websites of registered and certified pharmaceutical manufacturers. The credibility of the sources that I use to defend my claims and any information that I provide to clients is justified by the certification of the organization that has published the information source. Any information that is not available in pharmaceutical publications can be obtained from the websites of pharmaceutical bodies and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official website (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, n.d.) and publications.

References

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Retrieved February 05, 2019, from      https://www.fda.gov/

 

Critical Thinking Part

Income Inequality in the United States: Outline

  1. Introduction
  2. Thesis Statement: The income inequality problem in the United States is due to the lack of adequate investment in human capital. The solution to the increasing income inequality is investment in human capital to improve the skills and employability of citizens.
  3. Body paragraph (Introduction)
  4. Claim: One of the major social problems facing the United States today, and several other nations of the world, is income inequality.
  5. More than a quarter of the total number of American workers earn less than $10 an hour, including people working in the service industry – fast food workers, cashiers, and nurse’s aides. The rich have continued to get richer in the United States since the financial crisis of 2008 ended (Braun, 1997).
  6. The income gap between the high earners and the low earners continues to widen in the United States (Saez & Zucman, 2016).
  7. “Income inequality has sharply increased in the United States since the late 1970s, yet currently available evidence suggests that wealth concentration has not grown nearly as much” (Saez & Zucman, 2016).
  8. Discussion: in order to discuss the causes and solution to income inequality, it is important to first understand the problem, its extent, and its consequences. This claim will assist in the establishment of a discussion of the problem.

 

 

  • Body paragraph (Problem)
  1. Claim: Income inequality has resulted in several problems in society and generally in the United States.
  2. “Widening inequality also has significant implications for growth and macroeconomic stability, it can concentrate political and decision making power in the hands of a few, lead to a suboptimal use of human resources, cause investment-reducing political and economic instability, and raise crisis risk” (Dabla-Norris et al., 2015).
  3. Income inequality is negatively related to the average educational attainment and results in slow economic growth of a country (Cingano, 2014).
  4. Discussion: It is important to understand why income inequality is a social and national problem. This claim will assist in the investigation of the negative effects of income inequality in the United States.
  5. Body paragraph (Cause of the problem)
  6. Claim: Income inequality is a result of the changing labor market and changes in the industry, and not the availability of cheap labor.
  7. “Low wage competition isn’t to blame for western job losses and inequality” (Hutton, 2007). The author discredits the claim that the availability of cheap labor is the cause of income inequality and loss of jobs.
  8. Income inequality has been caused by economic and social changes that have affected the demand for and supply of labor, combined with the changes in certain wage-setting mechanisms in the labor market (Ryscavage, 2015).
  9. Discussion: This claim provides information, from credible sources, that shows that the proposed cause of income inequality in the United States -availability of cheap labor – is not the cause of income inequality.
  10. Body paragraph (Solution)
  11. Claim: investing in human capital is the best solution to the income inequality problem in the United States.
  12. Income inequality is the result of the failure of human capital investment to match the pace of rising demand for skills (Murphy & Topel, 2016).
  13. Investment in human capital affects the supply of skills and the level of salaries that people get when employed, which have a direct effect on the levels of income (Goldin, 2016).
  14. Discussion: this claim will provide support for the thesis statement, showing why the income inequality problem can only be solved through investment in human capital.
  15. Body paragraph (Counter argument/rebuttal)
  16. Claim: The increasing income inequality in the United States has been blamed on the availability of cheap labor from an increased number of immigrants.
  17. Many people and organizations have expressed their concerns on the increasing income gap in the country, stating that the increasing number of immigrants is the leading cause of the income inequality in the country (Kraus, 2017).
  18. An increased population results in increased availability of cheap labor in the country since companies take advantage of the situation and offer low wages and salaries for job positions (Dabla-Norris et al., 2015).
  19. Discussion: it is important to understand the causes of the income inequality problem in the United States, which this claim investigates.
  • Conclusion
  1. Call to action: The government and other relevant bodies need to realize the negative effects of the income inequality in the United States and take action to control its progress. Through investing in human capital and adapting to changes in the labor market, the income inequality in the country can be controlled.
  2. Concluding statement: Income inequality is one of the major economic and social problems in the United States. It is only through increasing the level of investment in human capital that this problem can be dealt with.

References

Braun, D. D. (1997). The rich get richer: The rise of income inequality in the United States and the world. Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Cingano, F. (2014). Trends in income inequality and its impact on economic growth.

Dabla-Norris, M. E., Kochhar, M. K., Suphaphiphat, M. N., Ricka, M. F., & Tsounta, E. (2015). Causes and consequences of income inequality: a global perspective. International Monetary Fund.

Goldin, C. (2016). Human capital. Handbook of cliometrics, 55-86.

Hutton, W. (2007, January 09). Will Hutton: Low wage competition isn’t to blame for western job losses and inequality. Retrieved February 05, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/jan/09/comment.china

Kraus, F. (2017). The historical development of income inequality in Western Europe and the United States. In Development of Welfare States in Europe and America (pp. 187-236). Routledge.

Murphy, K. M., & Topel, R. H. (2016). Human capital investment, inequality, and economic growth. Journal of Labor Economics, 34(S2), S99-S127.

Ryscavage, P. (2015). Income Inequality in America: An Analysis of Trends: An Analysis of Trends. Routledge.

Saez, E., & Zucman, G. (2016). Wealth inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from capitalized income tax data. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(2), 519-578.

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