An unbiased and ideological-free analysis of modern philosophy shows that the attainments of this century have made a significant evolution. First of all, this is a departure from a narrow, predominantly rationalistic philosophizing, oriented toward certain political views and religious (atheistic) beliefs. Throughout the century, various philosophical trends and schools have shifted to a more pluralistic and tolerant vision of the world. Coeval science formulated a whole series of new problems: technology and human, nature and global modeling. These new posers require a theoretical solution.
Coeval philosophy lives and acts in a completely different world in comparison with the one in which classical one advanced and defended its ideas and principles. Features of modern society are the industry of consciousness and mass culture. In society, there is a powerful apparatus for developing all sorts of social theories and myths, which, with the help of variety sources, “educate” the people every day and every hour, instilling in everyone the same prejudices, simplified schemes for explaining the physical natural world and history, simplified moral and aesthetic values.
The coeval philosopher, unlike the classical one, does not deal with a naive, unenlightened mass, but with people whose brains have been processed from the very childhood by ideology, various dogmas and superstitions, through which the idea should now be pierced to wake a person up and force him to think and live independently. Modern philosophy is anti-ideological. It fights against any ideology as a simplifying, superficial way of explaining the world and human, their relations. Abandoning the claims for the possession of absolute truth, coeval thought substantially restructured the image and style of philosophizing. Now most often this is not the author’s monologue, who knows everything in advance, but the dialogue between the author and the reader, suggesting intuition and the developed imagination of the reader capable of a certain spiritual work. Only in these mutual efforts can the true meaning and significance of the philosophical work be revealed.
Philosophical problems are a constant search for what the socio-cultural epoch represents, what characterizes the attitude of a person to the world in a given epoch and what feelings are in his soul. Coeval philosophy has posed as the most significant and priority posers of our time a whole series of global problems that can be combined into one – the poser of human survival. In the course of solving these and many other problems, a special area of the philosophy of global posers has arisen. It is interested in the worldview, methodological and axiological aspects of ecology, demography, the new world order, futuristic forecasts, etc. Creating a “second” nature, a person produces significant destruction in the biosphere. Earth life support resources such as soils, seas, rivers and groundwater, the air environment no longer withstand the burden of civilization. Scientists dealing with these issues proceed from the premise that all national and social differences between countries and peoples do not exclude the need to solve the general problem of preserving the human race on Earth; the poser, generated by the peculiarities of interaction between society and nature.
This problem is inextricably linked to a new solution to the eternal question of philosophy – what are the meaning of life and the purpose of a human. The philosophy of the twentieth century, along with the entire spiritual culture of the modern world, seeks to help a human in his search for truth, in acquiring the real and not the false meaning of life, in seeking for his self and realizing his creative potential. Modern philosophy rightly believes that science is a significant but not the only way to cognize the world, providing humanity with not only attainments but also social comfort and personal security; moreover, it accepts other concepts including esoteric, mystical or ecological approaches to the world. Thus, modern philosophy does not impose a single picture on the world, giving it out as the ultimate truth. It gives a person freedom in choosing his worldview.
- Falckenberg, Richard. History of Modern Philosophy. Philosophy in Wesleyan University, 2004.
- Finch, Anne. The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy God, Christ, and Creatures The Nature of Spirit and Matter. Ancient and Modern Philosophy, 2015.