literature review Essay

AIM: A regional model Asia-pacific for setup study of greenhouse gasses radiation and effect of rise in temperature of whole world is AIM model. The AIM model is an integrated model which is bottom-up and top-down and it covers three central models: the global climate change model, model of change in climate impact and the greenhouse gas emission model . AIM model range is 1990 – 2100. And its include nine states: East and south Asia , central and south America, the middle East , Africa , China and central planned Asia , USA , Canada and Western Europe OECD, pacific OECD, former soviet union and Eastern Europe.

DICE: DICE stands for the Dynamic Integrated model for change in Climate Effect established by William Nordhaus in which a consumer of a particular world maker makes selection among present consumption creative capital investment and decreasing emissions to slow climate variation. And change in technology and growth in population yields growth in productivity are both supposed externally approach to zero, ultimately produced a productivity alleviated population .

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FREE:The FREE model shows the global biogeophysical processes, that is global energy-economy system. Where model structure is endogenous, production of economic production and investment depletion, stock and energy demand and growth in technologies for energy are strongly coupled to each other .Energy and carbon tax policies are basis of FREE model which is not common in other IAMs and radioactive forcing form.ICAM:ICAM was introduced to know and discover the connection of different elements of atmosphere globally, demographic and economic elements. ICAM model presents the whole world as a 17 sectors, all of which with its economy, population and plans for their change in climate .IMAGE:Jan Rotmans was developer of the Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse gas Effect (IMAGE). Rotmans great approach led to first and main integrated model of change in climate. One that combine calculations of sea-level rise, emission, energy and climate consequences within a particular structure. A modified version, IMAGE 2 improved by modifications in change of global modeling that comes through 1980 at international institute which is for analysis of applied system, Larenburg , Austria.IGSM:IGSM is developed on the basis of set of combined sub-models of natural ecosystem and biochemical cycles, emissions, economic development and climate system. IGSM is international global system model. The main purpose of developing this model provides connection between science and policy. IGSM has enough detailed information of spatial and biogeochemical to study the effects of change in climate and arrangement of atmosphere on ecosystem and connection between natural emission and chemistry of climate and ecosystem. The chemistry of climate dealing in IGSM changes from other already exist assessment model structure.Mini CAM/GCM: The Mini CAM is Mini climate Assessment Model , known as GCAM, is an IAM that approximate emission of greenhouse gasses globally with Edmonds ,Reilly and barns (ERB) model, and the agriculture , land use and Forestry model (ALM) .The energy demand sector at beginning approximate demands of three categories of energy facilities (Transportation, commercial and Industrial) as a function of income and price. At first Mini CAM contain 11 regions but now it cover whole world as 14 regions: USA , Canada , Africa , Mide-East , India , China , South Korea ,Western Europe , Former soviet Union , Latin America , Australia, Japan, Eastern Europe, New Zealand, East Asia and Rest of South.RICE:RICE stands for Regional Integrated Climate and Economy Model. RICE is an economy dynamic model that integrates economic movements with emission, consequences and bases of greenhouse gas and of Change in climate . RICE model chooses a fact that how nations choose climate change policies in the presence of national self-interest and economic trade-offs. RICE model contain 10 regions but for simplicity these are combined according to the requirements. Use of RICE model is that it integrate sectors of climate with models of economic .TARGETS:TARGETS is the Tool to Assess Regional and Global Environmental and health Targets for Sustainability. TARGETS contain five sections which are interlinked on behalf of energy and economics, land and soils , water ,population and health , biophysics. TARGETS are the further part of IMAGE. TARGETS consist of basically five models that is population and health model , biophysics model , water model ,economy model and land model all of which are inter linked .ANEMI (version 1):ANEMI is integrated assessment model which connect physical and socio-economic issues, water resources and climate change to show a higher society-biosphere climate system. ANEMI is based on feedbacks. ANEMI model is represented in 2007 by Davies and modified in 2009. In ANEMI (version 1) represents eight sectors which are climate , carbon cycle , economy , land-use , population , natural hydrological cycle , water use and water quality sector .In version 2 of ANEMI model one new sector is added which is energy sector so it represents dynamics of energy supply and demand and carbon emission. But like other models ANEMI version 2 also has its limitations, it has simple structure of macro-economic system so, primary and secondary changes in supply and demand of energy cannot simulate in it. So it has lack of ability to develop a reasonable industrial emissions path.

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