KABASH 219385343 TRAFFIC ENG Essay

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

Table of contents

1. Introduction ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 2

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2. Background information ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 3

3. Site investigations ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………. 3

4. Design considerations ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 4

4.1. Additional building ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 4

4.2. Open parking design considerations ………………………….. ………………………….. … 6

4.2.1. 90 degre e parking ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 6

4.2.2. Angled 60 degree ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………… 7

4.2.3. Angled 30 and 45 degree ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 7

4.3. Design parameters ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 8

4.3.1. Type of traffic flow ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 8

4.4. Grading and drainage ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 9

4.5. Parking for disabled ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 9

4.6. Lighting ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 9

4.7. Signal and way finding ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 10

5. Conclusion ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 10

5.1. Parking layout ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 10

5.2. Traffic flow ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………….. 11

5.3. Grading and drainage ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………….. 11

5.4. Movement and dimensions ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 11

5.5. Access points ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 11

6. References ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 12

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

1. Introduction

The physical inter of any transportation system has 3 fundamental elements; the

vehicle, the roadway and the parking (Everett and Wolfgang, 1978).

Parking is

characterised as the action of stopping or disengaging an automobile and leaving

it unoccupied (Patel, K and al. 2017) . T his project will investigate the proposed

space on the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) to design an open

parking takin g into consideration the applicable design criteria to serve the

proposed new building to accommodate staff members, students and visitors as

illustrate d on the image below (figure 1) . Furthermore the relevan t design

consideration related to op en parking will be disc ussed and a full set of elaborate

AutoCad drawings provided.

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

2. Background information

The open parking to be desi gned on the pro posed site, of an area of approx imately

16694.81 square metres (figure 1) ought to first accommodate the users (staff,

students and visitors) of the proposed new building which will be drawn up of 2

floors reserved for office s and a ground floor comprising 6 lecture the atres and

afterwards accommodate vi sitors of adjacent building such as the PLMCC building

and the mechanical building. The proposed parkin g area can be viewed below in

(Figure 1)

Figure 1: Proposed parking area

3. Site investigations

The site investigation showed that the proposed area is sufficiently large and

accessible through 2 main ways, Khayalethu way and Engineering way. Therefore,

the first step is to formulate and develop a good plan for site layout to prov ide

appropriate entrances and exit ways taking into account the existing traffic around

Proposed

parking area

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

the site in order to avoid possible traffic jams. There is some existing parking space

around the proposed site, especially along the Engineering way and in front of th e

mechanical department (Figure 2).

The traffic survey around the site reported that the E ngin eering way is the most

used way between the 2 ways and it s traffic is relatively higher compared to the

khayalethu way’s traffic, this indication should be consid ered when designing the

open parking to avoid disrupting the movement of traffic around the site.

Figure 2: Location of different parking area

4. Design considerations

4.1. Additional building

A preliminary design of the additional b uilding consists of a ground floor area

comprising mainly 6 lectures theatres while the second and last floor will be

allocated office space. In general, lecture theatre s have a capacity of between 300

and 60 0, therefore an average capacity of 400 seats wi ll be used in this project and

an average number of 25 offices per floor.

Parking area

Parking area

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

Table 1: Parking demand

Floor Average capacity

Ground floor (6 lecture theatres)

1 lecture theatre 400

2 lecture theatre 400

3 lecture theatre 400

4 lecture theatre 400

5 lecture theatre 400

6 lecture theatre 400

Second floor 25

Third floor 25

Visitors 20

Disabled 10

Total 248 0

Ac cording to the standard criterion , an average rate of 1 parking space for each 10

students will be consider ed in this project , thus, the capacity of 2400 divided by

the rate of 10 gives u s a parking demand of 240 ( –

parking -calculator ). .

Floor Average

capacit y

Standard rate

Ground floor (6 lecture

theatres)

lecture theatre 240 1 for 10

students

Second floor 25 1

Third floor 25 1

Visitors 20 1

Disabled 10 1

Total 320

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

Depending on the above results, the number of parking spaces should be at lea st

320 to acc ommodate staff members, students and visitors.

4.2. Open parking design considerations

There are many ways in which parki ng supply can be made available, thus as

previously stated, the project deals with the open parking lot and the necessary

requ irement for its layout . An open parking or a parking lots is generally design to

achieve the following objectives (Pignataro, 1973):

? Provide maximum number of spaces

? Total travel discomfort when parking, unparking and driving within the lot.

? Minimize infe rence of entrance and exit lanes with the motion of pedestrian

and vehicle outside the lot.

Two main open parking layout are generally used to provide a maximum number

of space , the first layout is the 90 degree parking and the second is the angle d

parki ng (30, 60 and 45).

4.2.1. 90 degree parking

The perpendicular or 90 degree parking configuration uses the most usable space.

This model is particularly effective in low turnover or long -term parking areas.

Vehicles can use the aisle in either way and travel dis tance is reduced. Contrary

to the parking angles, the perpendicular parking configuration is the most

functional and cost -effective as it accommodates the majority of vehicles per linea r

meter and eliminates the dead -end aisles , reducing waste space.

Adva ntage s

? Works well for either one or even two -way aisles

? Covers most vehicles per square meter of pavement

? Cover s most vehicles per linear meter

Disadvantages

? Needs largest area

? Difficult handling for some drivers

? Two -way traffic may cause create some per ception problems

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

Figure 3: design vehicle and 90 degree parking (Mackey and al. 1978)

The other angle d parking are characterised as parking having an angle of less than

90 degrees ( 60,45 and 30 ) for those parking the one way circ ulation is desirable for

a busy lot. Such models are common ly used f or customer parking (Pignataro, 1973)

4.2.2. Angled 60 degree

This layout is suitable for fast turnover rate or mostly short term use and is

marked by difficulties with inefficient flow pattern s and one -way aisles.

Advantages

? Quit manoeuvring in and out of parking spaces

? Good vision

? Allows either one or two -way aisles

? Most common short term parking layout

Disadvantages

? Needs more pavement per vehicle than perpendicular layout

4.2.3. Angled 30 and 45 degree

Both configurations are similar to 60 degree parking but don’t fit well with 2 way

aisles and allow more pavement per vehicle than 90 degree parking configuration.

Any parking angle between 30 and 75 degree s may also be used to maximise the

use of t he area, with less than 30 degrees of excess space being wasted at the end

of the rows. The layout above 75 degree is no more efficient than 90 degree (Everett

and Wolfgang 1978).

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

4.3. Design parameters

The design parameters of the different layout configura tion ar e summarised in the

table below.

Table 2: D esign parameters (Mackey and al. 1978 )

4.3.1. Type of traffic flow

The main factor to be consider ed in the design of parking structure is the

determination of the type of traffic flow or the direction of vehicle traffic : one way

or two way. Commonly, a parking bay for a single way traffic stream is smaller

than for a two -way stream. A ccessible site measurements will impact the width of

the parking bay and thus impact the circulation design . There are favourable

circumstances and inconveniences to both course designs . A single direction or one –

way traffic flow is not compatible with 90 degree parking (CCDC, 2016) .

The following options are generally used:

? One -way aisle 45 degree

? One -way 60 degree

? One -way aisle 90 degree

? Two -way aisle 90 degree

Advantage of one way traffic flow

? Less clashes in circulation and decreased accident risk

? Enable the parking angle to be changed to accommodate vehicle size

changes.

? Parking spaces are simpler for parkers to enter and exit.

? Better visibility in the backup of a stall

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

Advantage of two way traffic flow

? Better angle of visibility when look ing for a parking space

? Instead of being forced, t raffic flow follows its own pattern .

? Wider drive aisles allow parkers to pass other vehicles and are safe for

pedestrians

? Can function effectively as one -way facilities when the directional traffic is

heavy

4.4. Grading and drainage

Appropriate floor drainage is suitable for all types of parking structure s, including

open parking, to take care of r unoff. The following minimum is generally applied

(parking design consideration, 1988) :

? A design slope of 2%

? Storm water should be collected on the perimeter of the parking area with a

minimum of 2% slope

? Pavement cross slope and lo ngitudinal pavement slope must range from 1%

to 10% and 1% to 5% respectively.

? Floor drain loca tions are dictated by the circulation system, amount of bays,

and structural system. Therefore is this project, the ideal slope of 2% will be

used as sugge st ed.

4.5. Parking for disabled

The p arking number for the disabled is set to 10 as shown above . D isabled parking

bays will be locat ed close to the building for easier access. Positions are shown in

the drawing appendix.

4.6. Lighting

Lighted parking spaces are an important considerations for all facilities. This

project concern s open parking spaces, which means that it will be illuminated by

sunlight during the day. However, during night time, the design should provide

lighting that meet the minimum standard of 1 – 2 foot -candles and 10 -20 lux

(CCDC, 2016 and parking design considerations , 1998) .

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

4.7. Signal and way finding

A well designed road signal system will be placed at strategic places to

communicate necessary information to the users (staff, students and v isitors),

reduce confusion and improve safety. These signs will include the following

pedestrians and vehicles signs:

? Speed limit rest rict ions

? Command signs

? Parking prohibited sign

? Excessive noise prohibited

? Disabled parking area

? Visitors parking are a

? Stop sign

? Parking reservation signs

? Entrance and exit points

Figure 4: parking signal ( )

5. Conclusion

Conclusion s and assumptions of this project are as follows

5.1. Parking layout

The goal of this project is to maximise the number of parking bays and to ensure

optima l traffic circulation, thus, a perpendicular or 90 degree parking design will

be used for this project as it is the most efficient and economical since it

accommodates the most vehicles per linear meter and use the dead -end aisles,

thereby minimizing wasted space .

The proposed parking dimensions are summarised in table 3.

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

Table 3: proposed parking dimensions.

Description Dimensions (m )

Parking space width 2.5

Parking space length 5

Driving aisle width ( 2 way) 7.5

Two rows plus aisle width 17

5.2. Traffic flow

In this project, b oth one way aisle and t wo -way aisle 90 degree wi ll be used

according to the configuration.

5.3. Grading and drainage

The ideal slope of 2% will be used as recommended.

5.4. Movement and dimensions

The parking bays should be 5m length and 2.5 m width a s summarised in table 2

with 7.5 m driveway between rows, f or ease of movement during ent ering and

exiting when searching a free parking.

5.5. Access points

To avoid creating traffic congestion on -site and off -site, 4 entrances will be on the

Khayalethu way and 1 on the Engineering way as indicated on the drawing.

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TSHINGAM B Achille KABASH 21 9385343

6. References

? Capital city development corp CCDC, 2016. Parking structure design

guidelines, final draft. Available at –

content/uploads/2014/11/CCDC -Boise -Parking -Structure -Design –

Guidelines_2016 -Final -Draft -08 -04 -2016

? Carter, Everett C & Homburger, Wolfga ngs S. 1978. Institute of Traffic

Engineers. Introduction to highway transportation engineering,

Introduction to transportation engineering, Reston Pub. Co. Reston, Va.

? Mackey, T. Van Zyl O. and Vorster, J.C. 1978. South African parking

standards. Available at

linepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/trr/1981/816/816 -006

? Parking calculator available at -parking –

calculator

? Parking design and consideration, 1988 available a t

? Patel, K. Khushbu, B and Siddhart. 2017, Literature review on planning

proposal for parking facility Interna tional Journal of Advance Engineering

and Research Development Volume 4, Issue 3.

? Pignataro, L. J. and Cantilli, E. J. (1973) Traffic engineering: theory and

practice . Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice -Hall.

? South Africa Road Traffic sign available at

.

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