International Relations Statistics

Questions on Statistics and Casual Inference (Holland, 1986).
1. What is the fundamental problem of causal inference, and why is it such a problem in international affairs research? Be sure to define a causal effect in your answer.
2. What is Holland’s justification for the claim that an attribute cannot be a cause? Do you agree or disagree? Explain your position clearly  and carefully. 
3. What is a confounding variable, and how might the presence of one lead to suspicion about the validity of a causal claim? How do confounding variables relate to Holland’s assumption of independence? 
4. What are the main differences between an experimental research design and an observational research design? What is one major limitation or drawback to each type of design? For more information on International Relations Statistics check out : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa5qXsHiWqA

Attachment : Proposing Explanations

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