Background of the context of the problem
Humans use resources to support life and produce waste (Singh & Ramanathan, 2010). Previously the disposal of wastes, according to this author, did not pose a significant effect because the adjustment capacity of the ecosystem was not exceeded.
The rapid population growth followed by the fast quest for economic development, the growing complexity of technology-driven wastes, and the expansion of urbanization added huge pressure on resources and the volume of waste produced (Tyagi et al.
, 2014). Moreover, Tyagi et al., (2014) stated that the majority of developing countries are experiencing difficulties in the management of waste; especially managing the municipal solid waste produced by the growing urban dwellers. In utmost developing countries, wastes are either dispersed in urban centers or disposed-off and damped in an inappropriate way in slopes and valleys.
The infrastructure, facilities and skills for the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of solid waste are not improved. There is poor solid waste management planning, inadequate financial resources, and less technical expertise.
The public attitude is low in terms of proper collection and sorting frameworks; these situations are aggravating environmental and health-related problems in urban areas of developing countries (Vaibhav et al. 2014).Waste management is more than just gathering waste.
It is the collection, transport, processing, recycling, disposal and monitoring of waste materials. Numerous factors, such as environmental, economic, technical, legislation, institutional and political issues, have to be taken into consideration (Beli”n et al, 2011).
The implementation of effective waste management practice has been identified as essential for economic development in low-income countries in particular(Scheinberg, 2010).
The management of MSW is going through a critical phase, due to the lack of suitable facilities for the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of the larger quantities of MSW generated daily in urban areas (Thanh et al.., 2010). Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is one of the basic services that are receiving wide attention in many towns of Somaliland. This is mainly because SWs which are generated in most towns of Somaliland are not appropriately handled and managed (Soloman,2011).
Environmentally tolerable management of municipal solid waste has become a global challenge due to scarcity resources, an exponentially increasing population, rapid urbanization and worldwide industrialization. Waste generation is not rare in urban areas or any part of the world. The only aspect that may differ is the approach of managing or handling the wastes.
The detonation in world population is changing the nature of municipal solid waste management mostly from a little importance and localized issue to a globally social problem. The problem of managing municipal solid wastes is increasing day by day, which consequences in a direct threat to the public health and to the environment (Chatterjee, 2010).
Taking into account the social-economic statistics of the city, Administration (2011), as the population grew the quantity of the solid waste produced from households, street sweeping garages, giant installed institutions, hospital wastes and other commercial establishments have enlarged.
According to Hargeisa City Administration Solid Waste Management Study Report (2017), the solid waste generated in the year 2011 of Hargeisa City was 14400 tones and the solid waste generated become 86400 tones of wastes after five years in 2017.
The waste is disturbing the image of the city and is exhibiting severe threats to human health. It is increasingly becoming an upbringing ground for diseases in the city. The city is gradually establishing unhealthy state for human residence in some locations.
In overall, the negative impacts on the environment, human and animal health is growing from time to time. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate Municipal Solid Waste Management Practices of Hargeisa City Administration of Somaliland.
Statement of the problem
fast population growth rate and rapid urbanization of Somaliland, according to Briggs (2000), projected in most urban areas especially small urban centers is doubling last 25 years. In line with this, Brigg (2008) defined that with economic development and rapid population growth in urban areas outcomes in continue to strain infrastructure development and service delivery including solid waste generation, which stresses municipalities in Somaliland to be prepared for such challenges.
Getahun et al. (2011) stated that poor solid waste management is a threat on sustainable development posing urban growth, which results in environmental pollution. Similarly, Feleke (2015) also noted that poor management of solid waste have a devastating impact up on the environment.
The research conducted by Catherine (2006) stated that ineffectiveness and limited capacity of the urban management authorities; limited involvement of participants including the local community, Community Based Organizations, NGOs and churches; and low-income levels especially in the slum areas have made the situation exasperating due to which several environmental and health-related problems are increasing.
A research conducted by VITAL (2013) recognized that lack of a master plan to re-organize the planning and settlement has put pressure on the infrastructure which resulted many complex regarding settlements notably waste management problems where solid waste problem is visible most parts of district’s urban area on the streets within the areas and around residential constructions and in various locations of urban areas.
Nevertheless, here are researches undertaken on municipal solid waste management (see for instance, Koyachew, 2016; Solomon, 2011; Mohammed, 2015; Alie, 2015; Yohanis, 2015; Birkie, 1999; Habtamu, 2015; Nigatu, 2011) it is significantly important to conduct other research with exact socio-economic context to approve and spread the generalizability of the current findings.
Hence, this study is attention on Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management Practice in the case of Hargeisa City Administration.
Objective of the study
The general objective of the study is to assess current municipal solid waste management practices of Hargeisa city administration of Somaliland.
In the bright of above general objective, the study is to analyze the following specific issues related to municipal solid waste management practices of Hargeisa city administration.The specific objectives of study are to:
1. To identify the types and physical arrangement of municipal solid waste management in Hargeisa city;
2. Assess the existing municipal solid waste management practices of Hargeisa city
3. Analyze the factors that affect the municipal solid waste management practices in the city of Hargeisa
1. What are the main types and physical arrangement of Municipal solid waste in Hargeisa city?
2. What do existing the existing MSWM practices of Hargeisa City look like?
3. What are factors affecting the MSWM system of Hargeisa City.?
Significance of the Study
This is anticipated to be beneficial in three main points, First, the study will give some guideline information to policy makers, public administrators, solid waste managers, municipal leaders, researchers and environmental protection agencies who seek to advance prevailing solid waste management and to reduce related problems and also to see the practices in the study area.
Second, It will donate to a better theoretical understanding of the overall features of municipal solid waste and problems faced in the process of municipal solid waste management. The study also important in locating baseline information to the next work as a foundation for researchers who would like to conduct detailed and comprehensive studies either in the city or another study area.
Scope of the Study
Solid waste management actions significantly differ from place to place. Irrespective of scale, difference in SWM activities is associated to the growing socio-economic, financial and legitimate variables. The scope of this study is to limit to small geographical area due to financial and time constraints.
In respect to methodology descriptive research method is apply for this study. The study is to assess the SWM system with the special focus of practices and challenges at local level, i.e. Hargeisa City.. Furthermore, although both liquid waste and solid waste are demanding subject to study, this study is dealt only Municipal Solid Waste Management Practices of Hargeisa City Administration of Somaliland from December 2017 to May 2019.
Description of study Area
Hargeisa is a city located in the North West region of the self-declared but universally unrecognized Republic of Somaliland in the Horn of Africa. It is the capital and biggest city of Somaliland. During the Medium Ages, Hargeisa was part of the area of the Adal Sultanate.
The city later succeeded Berbera as the capital of the British Somaliland protectorate in 1941. In 1960, the protectorate gained liberation and joint as arranged days later with the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic (Somalia) on July 1.
Hargeisa is found in a valley in the Galgodon (Ogo) uplands, and be seated at an elevation of 1,334 m (4,377 ft). Home to rock art from the Neolithic period, the city is also a commercial middle for expensive stone-cutting, building, wholesale services and trading, among other activities.
Though slight is recognized about the city’s pre-19th century history, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica proposes that the settlement might have evolved in the latter half of the 1800s as a Qadiriyya settlement established by Shaykh Maddar, close a water-stop used by nomadic stock-herders on the way to the town of Harar.
It, therefore, suggests that the name “Hargeisa ” was probably derived from the nickname Harar as-sagir, meaning “Harar the little” or simply “little Harar’”
Hargeisa has a semi-arid climate (K¶ppen: BSh). The city mostly topographies warm winters and hot summers.
However, despite its location in the tropics, due to the high elevation Hargeisa seldom experiences either very hot or very cold weather. This is a characteristic seldom seen in regions with a semi-arid climates.
The city obtains the majority of its precipitation between the months of April and September, averaging just under 400 millimeters (16 in) of rainfall yearly. Average monthly temperatures in Hargeisa range from 18 °C (64 °F) in the months of December and January to 24 °C (75 °F) in the month of June.
In 2005 according to the UNDP the city had a population of 9000000 while according to CIA fact book Hargeisa has estimated population of around 1000000 as of 2015. In It is the 700th largest city in the world by population size. The urban area occupies 75 square kilometres (29 sq mi), with a population density of 12,600 inhabitants per square kilometer (33,000/sq mi).
economically,Hargeisa is the largest economic center of Somaliland, it is the financial hub to many entrepreneurial industries ranging from gem stonecutters, to construction, food processing, retail, and import and export firms.
In June 2012, the Partnership Fund for the private sector in the Somaliland region was launched at Hargeisa ‘s Ambassador Hotel. Part of the larger Partnership for Economic Growth program, the initiative will see $900,000 USD allocated to 13 private local businesses, as well as the creation of 250 new full-time jobs, half of which are to be earmarked for youth and one third for women.
The fund is expected to improve job opportunities for 1,300 entrepreneurs through ameliorated product distribution and investment in new technologies and processing facilities. Eligibility is determined through a competitive and transparent selection process overseen by the Partnership program, the Somaliland Chamber of Commerce, and government officials
various primary schools and nurseries are dispersed throughout Hargeisa . There are also several state-run and privately owned secondary and high schools in the city.In terms of post-secondary education, the city is home to a number of colleges and universities.
The main institutions of higher learning include the University of Hargeisa , Admas University College, Gollis University, New Generation University and Hope University & University. Additionally, the Edna Adan Maternity Hospital offers nursing programmes to students.
Local government can make cities more competitive, more efficient and more attractive to investors and workers by promoting the sustainable development of the urban environment (The Cities Alliance, 2007), However, the capacity of local governments (municipalities) to render better services, to deal with public-private-partnership.
To maximize municipal revenues, to plan and implement different projects, etc. are the root. In this regard, municipal capacity is important
The main objective of the study is to assess municipal solid waste capacity of Hargeisa to manage urban environment.
The study is significantly important for communities, policy makers, NGO and researchers as well as in the town’s administration. In the next chapter, issues and concept of state of environment, environmental management tools and major capacity constraint are dealt in detail in the theoretical and empirical literature review.
Singh, J. & Ramanathan, A. (2010). Solid Waste Management: Present and Future Challenges.I.K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.Vaibhav, S., Rajeev, P. & Pooja, S. (2014). Urban solid waste management in the developing world with emphasis on India: challenges and opportunities, Reviews in EnvironmentalScience and Bio/Technology.
Yohanis, B. & Genemo, B. (2015). Assessment of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Role of Public Participation in Jigjiga Town, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia.International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 153-168. DOI: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20150305.16
Beli”n, J., Boeck, L., & Ackere, J. (2011). Municipal Solid Waste Collection Problems:
A Literature Review. Hub Research Papers 2011/34 Economics & Management.Chatterjee, R. (2010). Municipal solid waste management in Kohima city-India. Iran Journal of Environmental Health Science Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 173-180.