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Harsh Patel, Laurentian University, Bharti School of Engineering.


Thus by this project, we verify the different input

parameters for friction stir welding and tool geometry to

get optimum welded joint property for maximum tensile

strength . At the tool rpm of 1400 and tool feed of

15 mm/min we got the maximum strengths for all three

different profiles . Comparing the joint strength at different

profiles we found that maximum weld Strength 61 .


MPa with Cylindrical Tool Profile and after that with

Tapered Cylindrical Tool Profile 79 .095 MPa comparing the

hardness strength at different profiles we found that

maximum hardness of welding point 40 . The sample value

of weld point hardness value is HR 30 T

Contact Information

Harsh Patel

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Student

Laurentian University,

935, Ramsay Lake Road,

Sudbury, Ontario P3E2C6 CANADA

Tel: +1(705) 918 2701

Email: [email protected]



Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid -state welding

process used for welding similar and dissimilar materials .

FSW is especially suitable to join sheet Al alloys, and this

technique allows different material couples to be welded

continuously . In this study, Al alloys and commercially

pure Cu will be produced at three different tool rotation

speeds( 620 ,930 ,1400 rpm) and Two different tool

traverse speeds( 12 ,15 mm/min) with One tool

position( 2 mm) by friction stir welding . The project aim

is to weld two plates of Al alloys & pure Cu using

different tool profiles and to optimize the parameters

like tool rotational speed, tool profile, depth of cut, feed

etc . And analyse the influence of the microstructures

and mechanical properties of friction stir Welding .

Tensile and Hardness tests will be used to determine the

mechanical properties .

1 . Firstly clamp the work -piece in a heavy duty setup, so

that it does not move or shake at the time of welding .

Workpiece should be abutting i.e . both parts should be kept

side to side at a particular distance from each other .

2 . Now insert a blunt or probe tool till the whole pin gets

inserted in the abutting edges . Now the shoulder gets in

touch with the abutting edges .

3 . The tool starts rotating with in contact with the job . Due

to contact of work -piece, friction is applied and as a result

of it heat is generated . This heat makes the metal plastically

melt .

4 . When the metal gets plasticized the high downward

forces or pressure makes a strong, clean and solid state

weld .

Tool Profile

We selected different tool geometries like Cylindrical

and Tapered Cylindrical to analyse their effect on joint

properties . We have designed these tools using Creo

software .

These tool profiles are made up of Material HSS D 2 .

These profiles gives different properties of welded

joints . Circular pin profile can be considered as multi

edge cutting tool .

Figure 3: Microstructures at Different Stair Zone Areas

Result Summary



Figure 1:working Process

Experimental work

First We selected Cylindrical Tool Profile Which pin

diameter, shoulder diameter, shoulder length and

height of the pin were 6 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm and 3 .6

mm, respectively . Depth of Cut and Offset of the pin

were 3 .6 mm and 2 mm Al side is same .


Rotational speed(rpm) – 620

Feed(mm/min) – 12

Rotational speed(rpm) – 620

Feed(mm/min) – 15

Rotational speed(rpm) – 930

Feed(mm/min) – 12

Rotational speed(rpm) – 930

Feed(mm/min) – 15

Rotational speed(rpm) – 1400

Feed(mm/min) – 12

Rotational speed(rpm) – 1400

Feed(mm/min) – 15

Table: 2 Tensile Strength Test

Tool profile Speed




Tensile strength


Cylindrical 620 12 8.393

Cylindrical 620 15 28.929

Cylindrical 930 12 35.674

Cylindrical 930 15 28.666

Cylindrical 1400 12 32.127

Cylindrical 1400 15 61.324

Tapered 620 12 20.952

Tapered 620 15 39.408

Tapered 930 12 42.719

Tapered 930 15 16.825

Tapered 1400 12 41.749

Tapered 1400 15 79.095



Hardness test has been conducted on Rockwell hardness

Tester . Here we are calculating the hardness of weld spot . the

Hardness Of Welding Point 25 -40 . the sample value of weld

point hardness value is HR 30 T


Figure 2: Tool Profile

Table: 1 Cylindrical Tool Profile Experimental Images

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