Equality Egalitarianism is that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. Harry Frankfurt argues two claims in his text of Equality as a Moral Ideal, one is negative and the other positive and the negative aspect of his claim is directed towards economic egalitarianism which is desirable for everyone to have the same amount of income and wealth. Frankfurt’s argument towards this is that economic equality is not particular to moral importance, but the positive claim made by Frankfurt comes from an alternative he calls the doctrine of sufficiency in which he views that not that everyone should have the same but that each should have enough but an issue arises with this in which if everyone had enough, it would be of no moral consequence whether some had more than others.
Many arguments against equality are made which are that Equality can sometimes conflict with liberty, Equality is alienating because it keeps people from pursuing their own ends, Equality is a shallow value that encourages facile comparisons of one’s status with others ,and Equality distracts from important questions about sufficiency and what is enough.
Frankfurt gives consideration and rejects some of the justification for equality, one of his arguments is that equality promotes unity and inequality creates issues in society Frankfurt does not refute these idea but comes up with both construe equality as valuable derivatively, in virtue of its contingent connections to other things. In neither argument is there an attribution to equality of any unequivocally inherent moral value. The utilitarianism argument is that economic equality helps society as a collective, but Frankfurt argues for each individual the utility of money invariably diminishes at the margin and utility functions of all individuals with respect to money are the same but these arguments simply can not be valid because for individuals their functions are not all the same and the first part is false because mone which can buy many goods and people will use it for their own enjoyment. Human diversity is a major thing when it comes to equality because human being differ from each other in many different ways, we have different characteristics and circumstances, we begin life with different endowments of inherited wealth and liabilities as many do. Many of us come from many different backgrounds the epidemiological factors in the region in which we live can affect our health and well-being but also there’s physical things which are crucial in assessing inequality as well as the advantages and disadvantages such as income, wealth, utilities, resources, liberties, rights, qualities of life, and so on. As said the importance of equality is often contrasted with that of liberty, Nozick is known as a anti-egalitarian which are those who concerned with liberty. Those who are known as more of egalitarian thinkers such as Dalton, Tawney, and Meade may appear less concerned with liberty because they are determined to the demands of equality. Libertarians are those who believe a person should have liberty so the discussion of liberty and equality is faulty, many are to believe that that equal liberty is in a different discussions than those of the other variables of everyday life such income or wealth or well being. Liberty is among the possible fields of application of equality, and equality is among the possible patterns of distribution of liberty comes from the conflict between the argument of equal liberty and equality of the variables, a distribution of general promotion of liberty without paying attention to the distributive pattern, and the choice of space is a conversation that is not avoidable in the evaluation of the demands of equality. John Rawls theory of justice as fairness gives important example of the choice of space and consequences, in his Difference Principle his analysis of efficiency and equality are both related to individual holding of primary goods. With his system, diversity of inherited wealth and of talents would not create the same kind of income inequality as in Nozick’s system due to the primary goods, and in Rawls Difference Principle uses a egalitarian requirement. There is systematic contrasts between groups such as men and women in aspects of pregnancy and neonatal care of infants. A pregnant woman or one with an infant can not pursue her goals than a man unless of a restriction, the relationship between primary goods and freedom can vary with interpersonal and intergroup variation of specific characteristic. The central issue with egalitarianism come from the the differences of spaces, plurality of focal variables can make great difference precisely because of the diversity of human beings. Life is not a race ‘there is no unified race’, a race is the usual model used to discuss equality of opportunity, a race where some start closer to the finish line than others would be unfair, as would a race in which we all compete for a prize which someone has established. There are individual exchanges, in which the parties do not usually care about desert or handicaps, but simply about what they get in exchange. ‘No centralized process judges people’s use of the opportunities they had; that is not what the process of social cooperation and exchange are for'(386).