Cultivars of four varied species of Ornithogalum, lisianthus, sunflower and Trachelium were grown using four various colored nets. Out of four varied species three of them showed substantial result in cut flower weight in addition to blossoming and stem length due to net colour. In three lisianthus along with two sunflower cultivars showed noticeable enhance in flowering stem-length as compared to that of black as well as of neutral net. Cut flower weight increase was along with stem-length increase by using yellow net for growth of lisianthus cultivars.
By using blue net there was lesser stem-length in Trachelium plants as well as in two sunflower cultivars. Lesser weight of cut flowers of Trachelium plants that were grown using blue net was along with this effect. Usage of blue net for cultivation showed decrease sunflower inflorescences as well as decreased Trachelium diameter, on the other hand lisianthus had lesser stem length. By using red net Ornithogalum significant lesser time of flowering was affected although when it was along with gibberellin GA3 that is a chemical used as growth inducer (Ovadia, 2008).
Pittosporum variegatum was experimented by cultivating it using nets of colour shades that are green, blue, red, black and grey having various optical charisma properties. Oren & Shamir, (2001) noted similarly sunlight conduction in PAR that is photosynthetically active radiation of 400±700nm in region were formed with the help of knitting design. In winter period two layers whereas in winter a single layer having fifty percent shaded net was used for protection of plot. Results that were obtained after this research are as follows (i) Branch length was increased when grown below red nets. (ii) Below blue net dwarfing happened. (iii) By using grey nets, distinct stimulus of dense bushy plants along with small side shoots besides small leaves caused increased branching. (iv) By using reactive thermal net of Aluminent long branching strengthened. Throughout two consecutive harvesting years the obtained results could be reproduced. Coloured net technology as an alternative to growth regulators or else pruning can be used for maximum plant response that are commercially desired.
To find out the morph o-physiological characteristics of anthurium under shade condition a pot experiment was held by Roni, (2014). In this study five anthurium varieties viz. V1 (Pink anthurium), V2 (White pink anthurium), V3 (White anthurium), V4 (Light anthurium) and V5 (Green red anthurium) was planted under three light intensities (L0, Control or full sun; L1, 40% reduced light; L2, 60% reduced light). This study was done in split-plot design per four repetitions. From V1 the maximum plant height (34.4 cm) and flower stem length (29.1 cm) were found whereas the lowermost was from V5. From V3 Maximum spathe length (9.6 cm), spathe breadth (8.3 cm), number of flowers/plant (6.4) and highest vase life (26.7 days) were also found while minimum results for these characters were obtained in V5. From the light intensities, maximum result of all attributes were recorded in L2 (60% reduced light) whereas minimum from L0. It is revealed from the result that the leaf area and SPAD value were positive relation with anthurium flower production. Under 60% reduced light maximum number of flowers (8.3) was obtained from V3 and minimum in V2 under full sunlight. It was concluded that 60% reduced light was the most suitable shade condition for the best flowering variety V3 (White anthurium).
Jalal-UD-Din et al. (2013) study conducted light effect on height of annuals seasonal flowers of both long day plant and short day plant grown in leaf manure. Two different procedure introduced to observed height of plant. When plants emerge true leaf then transplant into two experiment. First Long days plant shifted in short day light environment. These environment contained 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks periods. In annual flowers photo period control flowering time in long day and in short day plants.AS time interval increase with shade period up to 8 weeks ,height of plants reduced .when flowers started then plant shifted to long day environment induction. For production of flower in all year around light intensity play significant role. Long day plant grown in shaded area produced more flowers, and similarly short day plant grown in high intensity light produced more flowers. In plant growth regular reduce vegetative growth of flowering plant, Application of Cycocel, Ancymidol and Paclobutrazol plant growth regulators effect plant height. Similarly annual long day seasonal flower placed in low intensity light reduced plant height. Long day plant took 8 weeks to gain maximum vegetative height.
The construction of netted structure based on sun light position and structure covering system. Radiation of sun ray effect agriculture production and influence on specification of covering system which penetrate ray of the plant and control vegetative and reproductive phases of agricultural production. Wave length of net depend on material which will pass light refection through net especially human eye (380-760nm) wave length (S. Castellano et al. 2008).
Jeong et al. (2009) studied in germplasm center observed growth of begonia under greenhouse effected by light intensity. In green house response of begonia species evaluated in different light intensities and best light intensity indicated that production of begonia species in shaded net improved quality and easy maintenance. For 12 weeks full light (1000 1800 ?molm-2s-1) increased vegetative growth in begonia contained greenness in leaf and maximum number of flower. Light intensity effected seedling of begonia in green house. Vegetative growth decrease as shaded increased with time interval
Jerzy et al. (2011) evaluated in Chrysanthemum cultivar grown in control room under different florescent lights. The light inflorescent control bud opening and post-harvest vase life of cut flower. In plastic tunnel wave length 400-580nm blue light opened bud earlier than other lights. In other light white and blue increased in bud observe. In blue florescent light flower bud head recorded more bigger than other lights. In red florescent light chrysanthemum produced smaller number of flower but its recorded earliest bud opening than other intensity of light. In Inflorescent light lamp, chrysanthemum show maximum post-harvest vase life as cut flower.
Gaurav et al. (2016) Cordyline used as foliage ornamental shade loving plant contain green colour leafs. Experiment conducted on different bearing intensities colour net which pass through various wave length light. Light intensity control foliage development in cordyline. In shaded net cordyline gained good quality colour as well as maximum vegetative growth. Shape of foliage effected in different florescent light intensity. White net indicated best growth in cordyline.
Oliveira et al. (2016) experienced Light intensity in herbal succulent product recorded maximum growth level due to improvement in photosynthesis process. Lemon balm contained essential oil as well as medical uses. Lemon balm cultivated in control shade in pot for 4 months period. In shaded net lemon balm use maximum blue light intensity which increase photosynthesis in leaf as a result 168% leaf are increased and plant height improve to 116%,42% in chlorophyll contact and essential oil increased 30% as compare to normal plants than normal shaded net. In result blue light intensity used beneficial in commercial production of lemon balm.
Singh, (2015) evaluated that floriculture industry green cut play special role in bouquet arrangements. In bouquet foliage used as filler to make aesthetic value in arrangements. Boston fern used as decorative in bouquet. In this protocol Boston fern showed different characters by using Farm yard manure, nitrogen, and shade. In fern plant density is vital role to increase attractiveness in arrangement. Fern show maximum growth in 75% shade net and bear maximum foliage. Application of nitrogen and FYM increase vegetative grow which show maximum plant density.
The various light intensities on growth and flower characteristics of Gerbera 40% decreased sunlight is more beneficial on growing and flower yield than 60% decreased or in daylight. Bigger flowers found with 40% decreased sunlight in comparison to control and tallest, thickest peduncles. Maximum quantity of flowers per plant and highest leaf area were reported from 40% light intensity. Uddin, (2010) noted that more sunlight in Gerbera production causes crown death and sun burn.
Study conducted to record effect of various media on Zinnia elegans , five media selected leaf manure, mixer(leaf manure + silt + coconut compost),coconut compost, silt and soil to evaluate Bloom period, flowers number, number of lateral branches, number of leaves, leaf area, plant height ,size and quality of flower. Leaf manure mix effected all parameters significantly, coconut compost increased significantly size of flower as compare to soil media. Flower quality was recorded unaffected in growth media. Mixer of silt, coconut compost and leaf manure indicated significant source of NPK. (Riaz et al., 2008)
Straw berry grown in organic media compare with conventional growing system in control green house. Four different growing media prepared, peat moss with manure compare with peat moss containing unfertilized manure mulch with flax straw, plastic sheet and peat moss. Vegetable and reproductive growth were observed in all treatments. Vegetative and reproductive growth in strawberry recorded less in unfertilized manure. Fruits of unfertilized manure contained more sucrose concentration then other treatments due to higher nitrogen level (Palomaki et al., 2000).
Different combination of growing media sand, silt, leaf manure, farm yard manure and garden soil were used to know the best substrate for its growth and flowering. Silt and garden soil showed best performance as plant height, number of branches, number of leaves and leaf area cm2 were increased. Yasmeen, Younis, Rayit, Riaz & Shabeer, (2012) performed an experiment to check the flowering and growth of carnation a commercial variety viz Chuabad Mix. There was more number of flower with long flower stalk, more petals in a flower and earlier flower emergence was noted by plants sown in this mixture in contrast to other media.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The purposed surveys were conducted under walk in tunnel constructed by iron pipes covered with colour shaded net at the Horticulture Department, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi in 2018-2019. Seeds of carnation plants were purchased from a reliable nursery with 95% germination rate and sown in multiple tray. Sprinkler Irrigation was done at regular intervals in order to get moist and healthy saplings. Polyethylene bags were filled with four combinations of media silt, silt + FYM, silt + leaf compost, silt + leaf compost and silt + farmyard manure + leaf compost. The combination was made by 1:1:1 for proper growing medium. Transplanting of saplings was done at the 4-leaf stage in polythene bags with intensive care to prevent damage to the stem and roots of the plants. During transplanting apply Redomil gold fungicide at the plants’ root zone to avoid fungal diseases.
The process of transplanting was done in the evening to reduce water loss due to evaporation. Carnation plants were sown in polythene bags (6 X 9 inches). The bags were irrigated, when necessary and remove weeds as emerge. There were 12 treatments designed 50% shading of green and 50% of blue nets and control conditions. Each net contained 60 carnation plants sown in four different combinations of media (Plate: 3.1 a, b). Regular cultural practices were done including watering, hoeing and weeding. Marked each treatment with tags to make physical comparison easily. Staking was done to avoid bending of the stem and thread were used to tie the plants with bamboo sticks. To keep them upright plants were loosely tied from the base and the middle of the stem (Plate: 3.2). The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 5 replicates. The treatments were made as given in