Cornell Notes Chapter11 Biodiversity Essay

TOPIC: 11.1 Biodiversity and Classification

WEEK: 1 (HOUR 1)

Learning Outcome (LO) Notes/Explanations

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LO 1: State three types of biodiversity. 1. Genetic diversity.

2. Species diversity.

3. Ecosystem diversity.

LO 2: State eight hierarchical classifications (from domain to species) according to its hierarchy correctly. 1. Domain.

2. Kingdom.

3. Phylum.

4. Class.

5. Order.

6. Family.

7. Genus.

8. Species.

LO 3: State five kingdoms based on how Whittaker (1969). 1. Kingdom Monera.

2. Kingdom Protista.

3. Kingdom Fungi.

4. Kingdom Plantae.

5. Kingdom Animalia.

LO 4: State three criteria on how Whittaker classified the organism. 1. Types of cells/Level of cell organization (either prokaryotes

or prokaryotes).

2. Level of organization of organism (either unicellular or


3. Modes of nutrition (either autotrophic or heterotrophic).

LO 5: State three domains. 1. Domain Bacteria.

2. Domain Archaea.

3. Domain Eukarya.

LO 6: State the criteria how Carl Woese (1977) classified the organism into three domains. 1. Based on the differences in molecular data (sequence of small subunit rRNA).


TOPIC: 11.2 Domain Bacteria & Archaea/11.3 Domain Eukarya (Kingdom Protista)

WEEK: 1 (HOUR 2)

Learning Outcome (LO) Notes/Explanations

LO 1: Sate the unique characteristics of prokaryotes. 1. Genetic material is not enclosed within nuclear membrane.

2. Unicellular.

3. No membrane-bounded organelle.

4. Has single circular chromosomal DNA.

5. DNA is not associated with histone proteins (except archaea).

6. Has smaller 70S ribosome.

7. Cell wall mainly composed of peptidoglycan (except archaea).

8. If present, flagella is simple (without 9+2 microtubule


9. Mostly has extra-chromosomal DNA, plasmid.

10. Mode of nutrition: saprophytic/parasitic/autotrophic.

11. Reproduce by binary fission (asexual only).

LO 2: Compare cell wall, membrane lipid structure & DNA structure between Domain Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. Features Bacteria ArchaeaEukaryaCell wall structures (peptidoglycan) Present Absent Absent

Membrane lipid structures Unbranched hydrocarbon attached to glycerol by ester bond. Some branched hydrocarbon attached to glycerol by ether bond. Unbranched hydrocarbon attached to glycerol by ester bond.

Histone protein associated with DNA Absent Present Present

LO 3: State three types of Domain Archaea. 1. Methanogens.

2. Halophiles.

3. Thermoacidophiles.

LO 4: State three classes of bacteria according to cell shape. 1. Spherical/coccus.

2. Rod/bacillus.

3. Spiral/helical.

LO 5: State two classes of bacteria based on Gram stain. 1. Gram-positive bacteria.

2. Gram-negative bacteria.

LO 6: State four classes of bacteria based on the position of flagella. 1. Monotrichous (1 flagella at 1 end of the cell).

2. Lophotrichous (2 or more flagella at 1 or both ends of the cell).

3. Amphitrichious (1 flagella at each end of the cell).

4. Peritrichous (Many flagella at various places of the cell).

LO 7: State the classification of Kingdom Protista. 1. Two major phyla of algae:

Phylum Chlorophyta.

Phylum Phaeophyta.

2. Four major phyla of protozoa:

Phylum Rhizopoda.

Phylum Ciliophora.

Phylum Euglenophyta.

Phylum Apicomplexa.

LO 8: State the importance of Bacteria & Protista 1. Importance of Bacteria:

To recycle chemical elements in ecosystem.


Pathogenic which can cause disease.

Research & technology.

2. Importance of Protista:

Roles in biosphere (CO2 fixation).

Food source (Chlorella sp.).

Eutrophication (algal bloom).

Red tide (dinoflagellates).

Human health (Plasmodium sp.Malaria).


TOPIC: 11.4 Domain Eukarya (Kingdom Fungi)

WEEK: 2 (HOUR 1)

Learning Outcome (LO) Notes/Explanations

LO 1: State the unique characteristics of Kingdom Fungi. 1. Eukaryotes.

2. Multicellular (except yeast).

3. Mode of nutritionabsorptive heterotroph.

4. Vegetative body structures consist of tiny filamentshyphae.

5. Cell wallchitin.

6. Reserve carbohydrateglycogen.

7. No chlorophyll.

8. Non-motile.

9. Reproduction via spores (asexual & sexual).

LO 2: State how Fungi are classified into three phyla. 1. Based on types of spore bearing structure.

LO 3: State three phyla of Kingdom Fungi. 1. Phylum Zygomycota.

2. Phylum Ascomycota.

3. Phylum Basidiomycota.

LO 4: Compare the three phyla of Kingdom Fungi. Structure Phylum

ZygomycotaAscomycota BasidiomycotaHyphae Coenocytic (aseptate) SeptateSeptateSexual reproduction Via formation of zygospores within zygosporangium. Via formation of ascospores within ascus. Via formation of basidiospores outside the basidium.

Asexual reproduction Via spores within sporangia. Via naked spores, conidia. Rarely occur. If present, conidia.

Example Rhizopus sp. Penicillium sp. Agaricus sp.

LO 5: Example of organism in each phylum. 1. Phylum ZygomycotaRhizopus sp.

2. Phylum AscomycotaPenicillium sp.

3. Phylum BasidiomycotaAgaricus sp.

LO 6: State the importance of Kingdom Fungi. 1. Decomposers (recycle organic material).

2. Commercial importance in agriculture as mutualistic symbionts (eg: lichen & mycorrhizae).

3. Pathogens.

4. Commercial importance in food productionfermented food.

5. Pharmaceuticalantibiotic (penicillin) to treat infections caused

by bacteria.


TOPIC: 11.5 Domain Eukarya (Kingdom Plantae)

WEEK: 2 (HOUR 2)

Learning Outcome (LO) Notes/Explanations

LO 1: State the unique characteristics of Kingdom Plantae. 1. Eukaryotes.

2. Multicellular.

3. Mode of nutritionphotosynthetic.

4. Chlorophylla & b.

5. Food reservestarch.

6. Cell wallcellulose & pectin.

7. Habitaton land (terrestrial) with few exceptions.

8. Has alternation of generation.

LO 2: Define alternation of generation. A life cycle involved the alternation between two multicellular bodies, sporophyte and gametophyte generation which takes turn to produce one another during life cycle.

LO 3: Classify Kingdom Plantae into four groups. 1. Bryophytes.

2. Pteridophytes.

3. Gymnosperms.

4. Angiosperms.

LO 4: State the unique characteristics of each group. 1. Bryophytes:

Non vascular.

No true roots, stems & leaves.

No seeds (spores bearing plants).

Gametophyte generation is dominant.


Fertilisationdependent on water.

2. Pteridophytes:

Has simple vascular tissue.

Have true roots, stems & leaves.

No seeds (spore bearing plants).

Sporophyte generation is dominant.

Mostly homosporous & few heterosporous.

Fertilisationdependent on water.

3. Gymnosperms:

Has simple vascular tissue.

Have true roots, stems & leaves.

Have exposed seeds (not enclosed within ovary).

Sporophyte generation is dominant.


Fertilisationless dependent on water.

4. Angiosperms:

Has complex vascular plant.

Have true roots, stems & leaves.

Has seed (protected within ovary).

Sporophyte generation is dominant.


Fertilisationdoes not depend on water.

LO 5: State the classification of bryophytes into 3 phyla. 1. Phylum Bryophyta.

2. Phylum Hepatophyta.

3. Phylum Anthocerophyta.

LO 6: Describe the sexual life cycle of Polytrichum sp. 1. Male gametophyte possesses antheridium.

2. Antheridium (ovoid-shaped) produce antherozoids (flagellated sperms).

3. Female gametophyte possesses archegonium.

4. Archegonium produce ovum.

5. Antherozoids swim to archegonium via watery medium.

6. Antherozoid fertilizes the ovum to form a single diploid zygote.

7. Zygote undergo mitosis to form a sporophyte generation.

8. Sporophyte remain attached to the female gametophyte.

9. Clearly shows alternation of generation where mature sporophyte emerges fom gametophyte.

10. Sporophyte consists of foot, elongated seta & capsule.

11. Within capsule, meiosis occurs to form haploid spores.

12. Haploid spores are released & germinate to form protonema.

LO 7: State the classification of pteridophytes into two phyla. 1. Phylum Lycophyta.

2. Phylum Pterophyta.

LO 8: State the classification of gymnosperms into four phyla. 1. Phylum Coniferophyta2. Phylum Cycadophyta.

3. Phylum Ginkgophyta.

4. Phylum Gnetophyta.

LO 9: State the classification of angiosperms into two classes. 1. Class Monocotyledonae.

2. Class Dicotyledonae.

LO 10: Explain the evolutionary relationship among groups in the plant kingdom (bryophytes to angiosperms). Features Bryophyte PteridophyteGymnosperm Angiosperm

Size of gametophyte versus sporophyte Gametophyte is larger than sporophyte Sporophyte is larger than gametophyte

Dominant of gametophyte & sporophyte Gametophyte is dominant Sporophyte is dominant

Dependence of gametophyte & sporophyte Sporophyte depends on gametophyte Sporophyte & gametophyte are independent Gametophyte depends on sporophyte

Presence of vascular tissue No vascular tissue Has simple vascular tissue.

Xylem consists of tracheid only

Phloem consists of sieve tube only Has complex vascular tissue

Xylem consists of tracheid & vessels

Phloem consists of sieve tube & companion cell

Water dependence in fertilisation Depends on water (flagellated sperm) Less dependent on water

Formation of pollen tube Not depend on water

Formation of pollen tube

Embryo protection Embryo develops within archegonia within gametophyte Embryo develops within archegonia inside a free living prothallusEmbryo develops within cone protected by woody scale Embryo develops within fruit protected by hard seed coat


TOPIC: 11.6 Kingdom Animalia: Phylum Porifera – NematodaWEEK: 3 (HOUR 1)

Learning Outcome (LO) Notes/Explanation

LO 1: State the unique characteristics of Kingdom Animalia. 1. Multicellular eukaryotes.

2. Lack cell wall (cells secrete extracellular matrixcollagen

for support).

3. Heterotroph/Holozoic (eat other organism).

4. Cells are specialised to conduct specific functions. Cells are

organized to form tissues (except simplest animals).

5. Motile at some time during life cycle.

6. Mostly have nervous & muscle system.

7. Diverse body plan.

8. Mostly reproduce sexually.

9. Adults are mostly diploid (fusion of both haploid gametes).

10. Undergo stage of embryonic & development.

LO 2: State the classification of Kingdom Animalia into nine phyla. 1. Phylum Porifera.

2. Phylum Cnidaria/Coelenterata.

3. Phylum Platyhelminthes.

4. Phylum Nematoda.

5. Phylum Mollusca.

6. Phylum Annelida.

7. Phylum Arthropoda.

8. Phylum Echinodermata.

9. Phylum Chordata.

LO 3: State two main groups of animal based on level of organization. 1. Parazoa.

2. Eumetazoa.

LO 4: State the three types of body cavity. 1. Acoelomate.

2. Pseudocoelomate.

3. Coelomate.

LO 5: State the evolutionary relationship of animals based on six characteristics. 1. Level of organization.

2. Body plan (symmetry).

3. Germ layers.

4. Body cavity.

5. Pattern of cleavage during embryonic development.

6. Segmentation.

LO 6: State the unique characteristics of Phylum Porifera. 1. Parazoa (no true tissue).

2. Mostly asymmetrical, few have radial symmetry.

3. No germ layers.

4. No body cavity.

5. No segmentation.

6. Feedingwater system (suspension feeders).

7. Adults are sessile; motile at larval stage (flagellated).

8. Spicule acts as skeleton (CaCo3/silica/collagen/spongin).

9. Reproduction; asexual & sexual (hermaphrodite but practice


LO 7: State the unique characteristics of Phylum Cnidaria. 1. Eumetazoa (have true tissues).

2. Has dimorphism, the existence of two different forms of a

species; polyp (sessile) & medusa (motile).

3. Radial symmetry.

4. Diploblastic (body wall composed of 2 layers ectoderm/epidermis & endoderm/gastrodermis separated by


5. No body cavity.

6. Has cnidocyte/nematocyte, stinging cells contain organelle

(cnidocyst/nematocyst) on tentacles around mouth.

7. Gastrovascular cavity has one opening (serve as mouth &

anus) a.k.a incomplete digestive system.

8. Extracellular & intracellular digestion.

9. Simple nerve net.

10. Reproductionasexual (budding) & sexual.

LO 8: State 3 classes of Phylum Cnidaria. 1. Class Hydrozoa.

2. Class Scyphozoa.

3. Class Anthozoa.

LO 9: State the unique characteristics of Phylum Platyhelminthes. 1. Flat body dorsoventrally (platyflat; helminthsworm).

2. Eumetazoa.

3. Bilateral symmetry, has cephalization (concentration of

sensory organs in the head region).

4. Triploblastic, acoelomate.

5. Nervous system: ladder-like.

6. Digestive system: incomplete, absent in some.

7. Excretory system: has protonephridia for osmoregulation.

8. Respiratory & circulation system: lack (by diffusion).

9. Reproduction: Many reproduce asexually.

10. Most are monoecious (hermaphrodite), but practice cross


LO 10: State three classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes. 1. Class Turbellaria.

2. Class Trematoda.

3. Class Cestoda.

LO 11: State the unique characteristics of Phylum Nematoda. 1. Shape: cylindrical with tapered ends.

2. Blunt tip at anterior (head) end & fine tip at posterior end.

3. Most are dioecious (separate sex).

4. Male is smaller & has a sharp kink in the end of the tail.

5. Unsegmented round worms.

6. Eumetazoa.

7. Bilateral symmetry, has cephalization.

8. Triploblastic, pseudocoelomate.

9. Fluid in pseudocoel forming a hydrostatic skeleton.

10. Digestive system: complete (mouthanus).

11. Nervous system: has distinct dorsal & ventral nerve cord).

12. Respiratory & circulation system: lack but nutrients are

transported throughout body via fluid in the pseudocoelom.

13. Body is covered by thick transparent cuticle.

14. As worm grows, it sheds old cuticle (ecdysis) periodically.

15. Has only longitudinal muscle ( causes whip-like movement).


TOPIC: 11.6 Kingdom Animalia: Phylum Annelida-ChordataWEEK: 3(HOUR 2)

Learning Outcome (LO) Notes/Explanations

LO 1: State the unique characteristics of Phylum Annelida. 1. Shape: cylindrical with metameric segmentation.

2. Eumetazoa.

3. Bilateral symmetry, has cephalization.

4. Triploblastic, eucoelomate.

5. Fluid in coelomhydrostatic skeleton for locomotion & protects

internal organs.

6. Coelum allows development of complex organ.

7. Digestive system: complete (mouthanus).

8. Protostome (mouth develop first).

9. Excretory system: metanephridia.

10. Respiratory system: skin, gills or parapodia.

11. Closed circulatory system with blood vessel.

12. Body is covered by transparent cuticle.

13. Has circular & longitudinal muscle.

14. Mostly monoecious but cross fertilization is a must.

LO 2: State three classes of Phylum Annelida. 1. Class Polychaeta.

2. Class Oligochaeta.

3. Class Hirudinea.

LO 3: Describe the unique characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda. 1. Eumetazoa.

2. Bilateral symmetry, has extensive cephalization.

3. Triploblastic, eucoelomate.

4. Fluid in coelom forms a hydrostatic skeleton.

5. Protostome.

6. Digestive system: complete (mouthanus).

7. Excretory system: Malphigian tubules

8. Nervous system: highly developed

9. Respiratory system: through gills, trachea or book lungs.

10. Open circulatory system blood-like fluid (hemocoelom).

LO 4: State six classes of Phylum Arthropoda. 1. Class Chilopoda.

2. Class Diplopoda.

3. Class Insecta.

4. Class Crustacea.

5. Class Arachnida.

6. Class Merostomata.

LO 5: Describe the unique characteristics of Phylum

Mollusca. 1. Eumetazoa.

2. Bilateral symmetry, has cephalization.

3. Triploblastic, eucoelomate.

4. Fluid in coelom forms a hydrostatic skeleton.

5. Protostome.

6. Digestive system: complete (mouthanus).

7. Respiratory system: through gills.

8. Marine mollusks mostly produce trocophore larvae.

9. Soft & moist body.

10. Body has three main parts:

Muscular footfor locomotion.

Visceral masscontain most internal organ.

Mantlea fold of tissue on visceral mass which may secrete


11. Mostly have shell.

12. Mostly, the mantle extends over visceral mass to create a cavity

(mantle cavity).

13. Mostly feed using radula (special organ) to scrape up food.

14. Mostly open circulatory system.

LO 6: State three common classes of Phylum Mollusca. 1. Class Gastropoda.

2. Class Bivalvia.

3. Class Cephalopoda.

LO 7: Describe the unique characteristics of Phylum Echinodermata. 1. Eumetazoa.

2. Radial symmetry, no cephalization (no brain).

3. Triploblastic, eucoelomate.

4. Has hard calcareous endoskeleton plates & covered by a thin

ciliated epidermis.

5. Deuterostome.

6. Has water vascular system.

7. Possess tube feet.

8. Digestive system: complete (mouthanus).

9. Nervous system: simple.

10. Respiratory system: through gills.

11. Separate sex (asexual/sexual).

LO 8: State three common classes of Phylum Echinodermata. 1. Class Asteroidea.

2. Class Echinoidea.

3. Class Holothuroidea.

LO 9: Describe five unique characteristics of Phylum Chordata.

1. Has notochord.

A dorsal longitudinal rod.

Composed of spongy connective tissue surrounded by a tough fibrous sheath; it is firm but flexible.

Located at dorsal to the gut.

Provide support to the body & site for muscles’ attachment.

Present at least in certain stage of their life cycle.

In vertebrates, embryonic notochord gives rise to vertebral column.

2. Has pharyngeal slits (slits in the pharynx).

A series of groove develop in the pharynx during embryonic development.

A series of outpocketings from lateral sides of the pharynx extend to the groove.

In most vertebrate, it is seen only during embryonic development.

Perforations are found on each side of the pharynx.

Perforated pharynx first evolved to filter suspended food particles.

In aquatic chordates, the gill is adapted for gas exchange.

In human, the first pair becomes auditory tube.

3. Dorsal hollow nerve cord.

Usually more specialized at the anterior end that develop into brain & the rest develop into spinal cord.

Nerve cord develops into central nervous system: brain & spinal cord.

In vertebrates, nerve cord (spinal cord) is protected by vertebrae.

4. Post-anal tail.

Chordates have a larvae/embryo with a muscular post-anal tail, an appendage that extends beyond/posterior to the anus.

Aquatic vertebratethe tail is retained for locomotion.

5. Myotomes.

Blocks of skeletal muscle, a series of muscle segment.

Arranged in pairs on either side of the body.

It is supplied by a single nerve root.

Myotome is the part of a somite that develops into the muscle during embryonic development.

Certain chordate: only during embryonic stage.

Remain in primitive chordate.

Work antagonistically.

Providing locomotion.

LO 10: State the classification of Phylum Chordata into four sub-phyla. 1. Urochordata.

2. Hemichordata.

3. Cephalochordata.

4. Vertebrata.

LO 11: State six common classes of sub-phylum Vertebrata. 1. Class Chondrichthyes.

2. Class Osteichthyes.

3. Class Amphibia.

4. Class Reptilia.

5. Class Aves.

6. Class Mammalia.


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