Construction Substructure and Superstructure

3000-5000 word Technical Report

Explain the terminology used in construction technology
Types of construction activity:
Low, medium and high-rise buildings, domestic buildings, for example house, flats and other multi- occupancy buildings, commercial buildings, for example offices and shops, industrial buildings, for example, light industrial and warehouses.
Construction technology terminology:
Loadbearing and non-loadbearing, structural stability, movement and thermal expansion, durability, weather and moisture resistance, aesthetics, fire resistance, sound insulation, resistance to heat loss and thermal transmission, dimensional co-ordination and standardization, sustainability and scarcity of availability, on-site and off-site construction, legal requirements, buildability, health & safety.
Construction information:
Drawings, specification, schedules, CAD, Building Information Modelling (BIM).
Supply chain Lifecycle
‘Cradle-to-grave’ ‘Cradle-to-cradle’ Circular economies.

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Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria
Pre-design studies:
Desk-top, Site Reconnaissance, Direct Soil Investigation techniques.
Substructure functions and design considerations:
Different methods for gathering disturbed and undisturbed samples, influence of soil type on foundation design, including water and chemical content, potential loads, position of trees and the impact on foundations, economic considerations, legal considerations (health & safety work in excavations), building regulations, plant requirements.
Types of foundations:
Shallow and deep foundations, strip and deep strip foundations, pad foundations, raft foundations, piled foundations (replacement and displacement piles).

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Types of superstructure:
Traditional construction, framed construction: steel, composite concrete and steel, timber.
Walls; roofs; structural frames; claddings; finishes; services.
External walls: traditional cavity, timber frame, lightweight steel. Cladding: panel systems, infill systems, composite panel systems, internal partition walls.
Pitched and flat roof systems, roof coverings.
Floors: Ground floors, intermediate floors, floor finishes. Staircases: Timber, concrete, metal staircases, means of escape. Finishes: Ceiling, wall and floor finishes.

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 Identify the different types of civil engineering/infrastructure technology used in support of buildings
Site remediation and de-watering:
Contamination management: cut-off techniques, encapsulation. Soil remediation: stone piling, vibro- compaction. De-watering: permanent sheet piling, secant piling, grout injection freezing, temporary techniques, such as pumping, wells, electro-osmosis.
Substructure works:
Basement construction: steel sheet piling, concrete diaphragm walls, coffer dams, caissons, culverts.
Superstructure works:
Reinforced concrete work: formwork, reinforcement, fabrication, concrete, steel.

Illustrate the supply and distribution of a range of building services and how they are accommodated within the building
Primary service supply
Cold water
Gas Electricity.
Services distribution
Hot and cold water
Single-phase and 3-phase electricity Air conditioning ductwork.
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Services accommodation:
Raised access flooring Suspended ceilings Partitioning

Websites :

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1.    The recommended word limit is 3,000–5,000 words, but you will not be penalized for exceeding the total word limit. This report should be well-structured, comprising sections such as an introduction, main body, conclusion, references and appendices. You are encouraged to make use of images, graphics, drawings and other research material in support of your presentation. Any material that is derived from other sources must be appropriately referenced using a standard form of citation.

2.    You will need to have an additional appendix of relevant literature which has been carefully reviewed to verify suitability and accuracy around the health and safety surrounding materials.

You are working as an Architectural Technician for large design practice, and your employer has asked you to produce a technical report to be distributed to new employees. The document is to consider the functional requirements and design selection criteria for different elements of typical commercial buildings and structures. You are to focus on three current projects being undertaken by the practice; these are as follows:

1.    A ten-storey shared occupation/apartment building in the Nottingham City Centre.
2.    A steel portal factory and storage unit in the outskirts of Glasgow.
3.    A single storey unit with a glazed frontage and includes an in-store bakery and a car park with
capacity for 120 spaces in Derbyshire. 

Section 1:
•    Describe the differences between residential, commercial and industrial buildings
•    Explain how the functional characteristics and design selection criteria are informed by the proposed building use
•    Discuss the ways in which sustainability can be promoted in the projects
•    Evaluate how the functional characteristics and design selection criteria impact on the eventual design solution of the projects

Section 2:
•    Describe the pre-design studies carried out and types of information collected for the construction site projects
•    Describe techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing
•    Describe the types of substructure works carried out by civil engineers.

•    Explain the functional characteristics and design criteria for primary and secondary elements of a building substructure and superstructure (choose one of the projects)
•    Compare different types of structural frame used to carry the primary and secondary elements of the superstructure
•    illustrate how the component parts of an element allow it to fulfil its function

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This document should consider the pre-design studies to be carried out and the type of information to be collated in order to design the most suitable foundation type for different types of structures above. The document should also consider the construction of different types of foundations and their suitability for use with different types of structures above.
The document should contain a description of the functional characteristics of each of the above elements and the design selection criteria for their use.
Both sections should contain diagrams to illustrate technical content. Each section is to be indexed with a checklist for use by technicians when carrying out design considerations. In addition to these you will be required to specify materials from appropriate manufacturers and include this information as an appendix and referred to in your technical narrative.

Attachments : Construction Technology, 4th Edition Advanced Construction Technology, 4th Edition site investigation heave etc[1] The-Green-Guide-Explained_March2015 Constructing-the-team-The-Latham-Report Construction Technology – An Illustrated Introduction Part 3 Community & Assessment



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