Chapter3 Detail Literature Review However research on school Essay

Chapter#3: Detail Literature Review

However, research on school building design and conditions indicates that aspects of interior design play an important part in student behaviors, attitudes, and achievement. It is quite a common sight to see community centers in use in various parts of the world. They have been fulfilling a variety of roles in many communities for a number of years. brings much insight into this field. He says: the design process must focus on the role of the social environment and how the physical environment may be structured to support learning and assist facilitators and learners in their work.

(Peter C. Lippman, 2010)

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Major Study: Interior Design Specialized in Institutional Design


Opposite to desirable thoughts, the light, dull color should not be applied to all student classrooms. This fact because such colors can make a classroom impersonal and maybe a reason to cause dynamic behavior as a reaction to the absence of the stimulus. Using a warm, bright color scheme, such as soft, warm yellow, coral, peach colors can achieve the goal of decreasing tension, stress and anxiety.

As accents, designers may use colors of opposite temperature. For students of upper grade and secondary, color schemes that are most proper to encourage concentration are beige, pale or light green, and blue-green, theses colors also allow the student’s eyes to relax as they look up from their task. (Frank Mahnke, 1996)

Color in institutions is an effective method to enhance productivity, wayfinding, and actions of users. For students to become more comfortable in their surroundings, The correct choice of colors can assist to produce the needed stimulation in the learning environment. 30 years is the average life span of educational space, and layouts are supposed to wear out before they are changed, therefore three trends are dominant: 1) for a timeless effect, primary colors a bit muted. 2) nature stand colors or earth tones; 3) traditionally originated schemes of tales, blues, greens, and darker reds. The foundation of colors differs largely depending on-site location, exterior architecture, natural and artificial lighting. (Renee Hytry, The Color Factor, 2005)


The first color psychologist advice’s using the warm, bright color scheme, such as soft, warm yellow, coral, peach colors in interiors of educational facilities to achieve the goal of decreasing tension, stress, and anxiety. On the other hand, Rene advises using dominant trend colors such as primary colors, nature stand colors or traditionally originated colors. Both have different opinions for different reasons.


The most important determinant success of the center is the quality of the building. Centers should include a large hall appropriate for meetings, social events and theatre, a common room, coffee shop or cafeteria, games facilities and a couple of small meeting rooms. (Mess and King, Community centers and associations, 1947)

To fulfill people’s need, the planning and design of learning spaces should not be a high-end luxury, the division of each space and the overall design of the key shown in whether it is humanized, whether the planning is scientific and sensible, and whether it can fulfill the needs of the community citizen. (Fengyan Shao, Interior Space Design of Community Activity Center Based on Service Function, 2019)


Both architects prefer to consider the quality of the building not to be high-end luxury and not very low in planning and maintenance. The first architect considered the main functions that should include in community centers on the other hand Fyngyan Shao prefer to create a sensible space that fulfills students’ needs.


Architect Lynn Grossman stated that implementing abundant views with natural light in learning environments helps exterior and interior to look as connected, yet they are separated, and it helps to connect their communities together. So people can observe the activity and the natural world outside, and those outsides can have a peek of what’s going in the interior of the building. (Lynn Grossman, How architecture uses space, light, and material to affect your mood, 2016)

The research showed that seeable light helps the human body to control the production of the melatonin hormone, which in roll aid to regulate our body clock, affecting sleep patterns and digestion. Moreover visible light assists to stimulate the body’s production of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which can reduce the symptoms of depression. (Dr. Alan Lewis, How architecture uses space, light, and material to affect your mood, 2016)


Architect Lynn prefers to use natural light in the interior of educational spaces to feel the connection with the outside community. In the other hand, Dr.Alan prefer to use visible light in the educational facilities due to the benefits of that type of light such as regulating body clock, affecting sleep pattern and affect the stimulation of the human body.


Vinyl is beneficial for schools by fulfilling the need of blocking noise (classrooms and corridors) slip-resistant, electrostatic dissipative (IT rooms), hygienic (bathrooms and kitchens), aesthetically beautiful (reception areas), exceptionally durable (heavy foot and wheel traffic), easy-to-clean (dining halls and laboratories). The research pointed put that naturalness created by light colors, warm floor surfaces, and stimulation that designed by different color choices is important in today’s learning environment. ( Tandy C. 9 ways vinyl flooring revolutionizes schools, 2017)

Furry materials (carpet and VCTT) should only be used when necessary for acoustic or comfort reasons, and only if the school can offer the budget for sufficient maintenance. In such spaces, VCTT is the best choice for an alternative. Carpet should at least fulfill the VOC examining standards of the Carpet and Rug Institute. For other school facilities, it is better to choose the most durable non-porous hard materials, like terrazzo, concrete or tile. After choosing an option of these, always the company should consider the capacity of the available budget for appropriate maintenance, repair, and replacement. (Frances Gilmore, Health Considerations When Choosing School Flooring, 2014).


For Tandy Vinyl is a better choice for schools to fulfill specific requirements for the education facilities. On the other hand, Frances sees that Furry materials are the best choice for educational facilities. When choosing carpet the carpet should fulfill the VOC examining standards so it will not harm the users. Frances added that it is important to consider a budget for the maintenance of the materials after applying them.


Each building plays an important role in making fascinating and entertaining areas. For instance, the fabric of the building should be attractive, flexible enough to inspire a different range of participation. Monolithic walls and slick, glass skinned structures take on a sculptural quality when seen from a far distance. (Nastaran Nafari and Nor Atiah Ismail, An Analysis of Critical Factor Impacts on Development of Community Center in Malaysia, 2016)

In its reflective shape, the streetscape of houses across the street shown through the glass curtain wall, a connection between the center and the community it serves through a poetic gesture. (Ikon.5 Architects, Glass facade invites participation at New Jersey community center, 2017).


Both prefer using glass walls in education areas because it gives the feeling of connecting the interior with the exterior community by giving a chance for the exterior walking people to see what’s happening inside.


Stairs and slides ease student’s way down to the ground floor path. The main hall or other public rooms be used for public access on no statement, and stores better to directly be accessible from the space they serve. (Christensen, Christensen & Co Design New Learning Spaces in Copenhagen, 2019)

For the physical access to some subdivision of facilities, all walking areas on all floors of a building should implement physical accesses, if they are either bounded physically by partitions or not. Containing Horizontal and Vertical circulation, which should be but is not limited to public corridors, exhibition spaces, entrance foyers, elevator lobbies, tunnels, bridges, and each floor’s footprint of elevator shafts, escalators, and stairways. Also implementing corridors, whether walled or not, supplied they are within the exterior land of the buildings to the extent of the roof drop line. ( Black J, Journal of Sustainable Development, 2011)


Implementing stairs and slides for physical access to ease the student’s movement inside the building, allowing access from the public to the main hall and public rooms. But Black did not specify certain access to the facilities in the institutions. He prefers to implement physical accesses that are not limited to the public.


From the urban cityscape and the private building, an outside stair generates a transitional buffer zone. The local community can benefit from the area under the trees. An energetic social environment for activities like lectures, crafts, concerts, and communal meetings in the theater facility. (Christensen, Christensen & Co Design New Learning Spaces in Copenhagen, 2019)

Different spatial forms need to compose the large areas, each space needs to fulfill the needs of various groups of people. For example, young people in the community to meet their needs of reading learning-based static space and playful dynamic space, they need dynamic and static functional space and these two spaces should be purposely designed into specific spatial processing techniques. (Fengyan Shao, Interior Space Design of Community Activity Center Based on Service Function, 2019)


Both architects prefer to create a large space that serves different needs for different age group, they both agree on creating purposely designed functional and entertaining spaces that serve the community members.


AV equipment (e.g., computers, projectors, screens, DVD players, lecterns, etc.) will be fitted with security covers and tamper-proof rack screws. Projection room windows should utilize anti-reflection coating on projection windows, angled glass, and security bars. Coordinate design with the Audio Visual Team to ensure that audiovisual equipment is appropriately secured. (Resource Planning Group Inc, Learning Space Design Guidelines, 2018)

Pathways that are best planned, open access to equipment, supplies and ease furniture moving are all ergonomic considerations. Tables and chairs should be adaptable, due to the variation of human sizes. Another point, instructors and students should feel that they are motivated to get up and move around. Two principles of well ergonomic thinking are worth considering: it shouldn’t cause any pain, and it should prevent accidents. (Lori Gee, Human-Centered Design Guidelines, 2006)

Minor Study: Anthropology


Anthropology is the specialty that studies how humans understand the world around them, live in a different community and how they should act, eat and practice. The study of what makes us human taught in anthropology. Anthropologists take a broad approach to understand the many various aspects of the human experience, which we call holism. (Article of What is Anthropology?)

Cultural Anthropology

Sociocultural anthropologists investigate people’s lives in different places and make sense of the world around them. Sociocultural anthropologists curious about the way people thinking, and the rules they create about how people should communicate with one another. People differ in the way of speaking, dressing, eating, or treating each other, even if they are born or lived in one country or society. In order to understand how societies differ and what they are similar in, anthropologists want to listen to all voices and viewpoints. (Article of What is Anthropology?)

The project will affect teenagers in the community, help parents and teachers in the learning environments. Teenagers, in order to empower them to make a difference in their own lives and in their communities, a better understanding of what facilitates empowerment in young people is needed.

Youth Development

Youth development has traditionally and still largely use to targets natural action. The youth development process formed of growth of the physical, social, emotional, cognitive and moral domains. Apply a set of assumptions that underline the importance of active support for the growing capacity of young people by people is what the term of youth development includes, it also includes organizations, institutions, and community. Finally, explaining a number of practices in programs, organizations, and initiatives is also what youth development term describes. Another meaning that describes youth development is the application of concepts to a strategy set of activities that foster the developmental process in young people. (Dr. Daniel F. Perkins, Fostering Youth Engagement on Community Teams, 2006)

Teenagers Problems

As the qualitative and quantitative research outcomes represented that parents of teen ages stressed out from searching about beneficial activities to engage their children in. Teenagers facing problems in finding a suitable place to have fun and do their homework. The best way to address issues is to form on strengths. The field of positive youth development highlights the talents, strengths, interests, and future potential of young people. This theory is known as youth voice, participation, and empowerment. Youth respond in a different way to the same possibilities that they have because they are interested in different topics and needs. (Dr. Daniel F. Perkins, Fostering Youth Engagement on Community Teams, 2006)

Youth developments include the shape of a different number of contexts or settings that advance youth improvements. (Benson and Saito, 2000) proposed that there are four basic settings in which youth development principles are applied and in which youth development takes place. These settings vary from a particular point to general and include programs, organizations, socializing systems, and community. (Dr. Daniel F. Perkins, Fostering Youth Engagement on Community Teams, 2006)

Youth Development Programs

The youth’s positive development approach is holistic, considering the community and linking it to the youth. This approach perceives youth as full partners in the community, it focuses on the interaction between youth and their community members the forming of the positive youth development framework in community-based youth programs. (Dr. Daniel F. Perkins, Fostering Youth Engagement on Community Teams, 2006)

Programs that highlight features such as skills (self-efficacy & resilience), confidence (self-determination & positive identity), social relations (bonding to the community), and character (belief in the future) promote positive youth development. Although the advances of community-based youth programs differ, they look to share a variety of traits. Programs offer attention to young people’s physical, social, and emotional growth and development; informal education and skill-building. The Social Development plan established in the understanding that youth educated the patterns of behavior from socializing with social members around like family, school, community institutions, and peers. Young people specifically get advance when their contexts encourage them to make a change. (Dr. Daniel F. Perkins, Fostering Youth Engagement on Community Teams, 2006)

Community Center Strategies

A systemic or comprehensive change is what Community center refers to. All beliefs about education are flexible to examine the final outcomes of greater student growth by all youth, and starting the Centers as headquarters for lifelong learning in their communities. (Wayne Jennings, Community Learning Centers, 2005)

Place-Based Learning is one of the Community-Based Learning Programs, it uses the special history, environment, culture, and economy of a specific place to offer a situation for learning. Community needs and interests are student work direction, and who serve as resources and partners are community members, they serve in every feature of teaching and learning Community Learning Center cites represent. (Amy C. Berg, Community-Based Learning, 2006)

Community and academic center offers a safe and supportive environment that youths can call their own, in what they are interested in. For example, if they have interests in technology, arts, music, learning different foreign languages and sports. Community and learning is the place to improve their unique abilities, learn, grow and have fun. Community and Academic centers have been fulfilling different roles in many environments for many years.“Community services are widely accepted as effective solutions to social and economic problems. Furthermore, the community center has become the backbone of service delivery in the community.’’ (Sheryl Tubbs, Designing A Complete Community Center: Responsive Design in a Rural Setting, 2012)

Community and Academic Center

If teenagers interested in technology, the arts, music, learning different foreign languages, sports, Community and Academic centers offer a safe and supportive environment that youths can call their own! This is the place to develop their unique talents, learn, grow and have fun.


The outcomes take the form of complex behaviors or roles. These four proposed consciences need each student to gain specific skills such as being a responsible citizen, creative worker, self-directed lifelong learner, healthy person. The learning outcomes at Community Learning Centers focus on carrying students to a high stage of competence as workers, citizens, family members, and lifelong learners for a complex, diverse, and rapidly. (Wayne Jennings, Community Learning Centers, 2005)

Three basic parts which are primary skills such as reading, writing, performs arithmetic and mathematical operations, listens and speaks. Thinking skills: thinks creatively, makes decisions, solves problems, visualizes, knows how to learn, and reasons. The final skill is Personal Qualities such as displaying responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management, and integrity. Five Competency: Resources: Identifies, organizes, plans, and, allocates resources. Interpersonal: Works with other, Information: Acquires and uses information. Systems: Understands complex inter-relationships. Technology: To work with different types of technologies. (Wayne Jennings, Community Learning Centers, 2005)

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