CHAPTER TOW 2. REVIEW LITERATURE 2.0. Introduction Essay

This chapter is all about different literatures pertained to the study. Hence, concept and theories of migration, causes of migration, effects of migration on the urban area communities, international experience on migration will be intensively discussed.2.1. Theoretical Literature Review2.1.1. Definition and Concept of MigrationThe whole theories of migration are not a similar description; however they are using in an exception manner in various specific issues of the study. To scant this, therefore, some thoughts that more or less have similar with this study are explained.

Theoretically Migration is defined as a process of movement of people from one place to another. It may be on temporary or permanent basis. Which usually takes place at a variety of scale, internal (within a given countries or regions) and intercontinental (between different countries or states) (Birhanu Melesse and Dr.Kavitha Nachimuthu, 2017, p .37). But, the character of migration and the reasons for it are complex, and there is no common agreement between scholars on the reason of migration.

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Arguments about the difference on migration motivating factors exist not only between scholars from different discipline, but also between scholars within one discipline (Timalsina, 2007). Thus, concepts and methods of categorizing migration are other essential aspects of migration study. International migration: Migration occurring across country boundaries. Such migrants are known as immigrants (coming into a foreign country) and emigrants (Leaving their own country). This also includes continent “to-continent migration (World Economic Forum 2017 p .13-14). Internal migration: Migration occurring within a country from crossing political boundaries, either within stats or between states, whether urban to rural, urban to urban, rural to rural, or rural to urban. The term associated with migrants arriving at their destination is in-migrants and with those leaving their place of origin is out-migrant. This form of migration also includes movement between villages, blocks districts (World Economic Forum 2017 p .13-14). Rural-urban migration is the movement of people from the country side to the urban center. Migration may be permanent in nature or it may be temporary. People May Choose to migrate voluntarily or they may be forced in to it. Both at the urban destination and at the rural origin there are demographic, economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts of migration (Jahan, M.2012, p.187). Migrants are defined as those who have moved at last once in their lifetime from a given geographical region or from the place in which they were born to any other part of the country, in order to make a living for a substantial period of time Mohammed (YA, 2016).Pushes Factors: Things that encourage people to leave an area such as environmental issues like flooding, drought, storms, lack of occupations, poor sanitation leading to widespread disease, overcrowding, high crime rates, poor housing, and lack of quality education etc…( World Economic Forum, 2017).Pulls Factors: Things that encourage people to go to an area such as readily available jobs, quality education, medical care, low crime rate, mild weather, high security etc. ( World Economic Forum, 2017).Informal sector means very small scale units producing and distributing goods and services consisting largely of independent, self-employed persons in urban areas of developing countries, some of whom also employ family labor or a few hired workers, which operate with little capital or none at all which operate at a low level of productivity which utilize a low of technology and skills and which provide very low and irregular incomes and highly unstable employment to those work in it (Etsubdink Sibhat, 2014). Street vendor means a person who offers goods for sale to the public at large without having a permanent built up Structure from which to sell. Street vending may be stationary in the sense that they occupy space on the pavements or other public or private spaces or they may be mobile in the sense that they move from place to place by carrying their wares on carts or push carts or in baskets on their heads (Misrak Woldu et al, 2017). One of the most important aspects of social science is Human migration”. It has maintained a close relation with mankind From its earliest stage inter-disciplinary approach today has attracted the scholars of geography, sociology, demography, economics And other related disciplines. Because of the complexity of human life and fast changing socio-economic conditions, human migration is gaining importance day by day. Basic factor that has influenced the mobility of man from one region to another was uneven distribution of population and resources, unbalanced utilization of resources and variation in economic and cultural developments. It is uneven distribution of population and resources that has led to rapid growth of internal migration (Timalsina, k. 2007 cited in Richard Atsukuadamah, 2017. p.1).2.1.2. Causes of Migration A myriad of favorable, unfavorable or natural factors cause migration. Factors that determine why a person migrates are related to the place of residence from where migration starts, also known as the origin, and the place of new settlement, or where migration ends either completely or temporarily, also known as the destination. Both the origin and destination are characterized by factors that support, reject or are neutral (neither support nor oppose migration). The favorable attributes of a location are pull factors, which attract a person. The unfavorable attributes operating at a location are the push factors, which force or compel a person to move away. Both pull and push factors can apply simultaneously at the place of origin as well as at the destination. Typically, the causes are economic, socio-political and ecological: Economic Factors These relate to the labor market of a place, the employment situation and the overall state of the economy. Favorable economic conditions at the destination the prospect of higher wages, better employment opportunities and prospects for wealth creation and desire to escape the domestic social and political situation of their home region can draw migrants to their destination. Likewise, if economic conditions are unfavorable at the place of origin, poor and unemployed individuals would be compelled to migrate to sustain their livelihood. Push Factors Unemployment. Often, people leave places where they are less likely to get employment (such as rural areas) and go to urban areas where job opportunities are more plentiful. This factor has been the major reasons cities and towns are highly populated. Individuals leave their homes to search for employment in more industrialized areas.Drought and famine. Some communities are nomads in that they move away from their land in periods of severe drought and famine in search of water and food and unsustainable livelihood. Pull factors Availability of better job opportunities. People seeking employment leave their homes to the places that they can access better opportunities. Better income and prospects for wealth creation and Industrial innovation and technical know- how for a new industry Pursuit of specialized education (World Economic Forum 2017 p16). Socio-political factorsThese include family conflicts and unification the quest for independence, ethnic, religious, racial and cultural parameters warfare, or the threat of conflict, among other factors that contribute to migration. Push factors Political instability. The effects of politics force people to move out of their homes or even countries, in search of a peaceful environment. Insecurity. People move away from places that experience terrorism, violence, and high levels of crime. They move in search of peaceful and secure environment. Inadequate or limited urban services infrastructure (including healthcare, education, utilities, transport and water). Pull factors Political freedom. People are attracted to governments that exercise democracy as opposed to dictatorship. Religious freedom. There are places in the world where free worship is not protected. People will flee from religious prosecution. Integration and social cohesion and food security. Affordable and accessible urban services (including healthcare, education, utilities and transport (World Economic Forum 2017 p16). Ecological factorsThese include Environmental factors such as climate change and the availability of natural resource that cause individuals to migrate in search of more favorable ecological conditions. Push factorsClimate change /including extreme weather events/ and crop failure and scarcity of food. Pull factorsAbundance of natural resources and minerals /e.g. Water, oil uranium/ and favorable climate ( World Economic Forum, 2017).2.1.3. The urban informal sector as a cause of urban wards migrationThe urban informal sector, unlike its formal counterpart, includes all activities that are unregulated and small scale in nature. A majority of migrant workers find work in the urban informal sector which then leads to low productivity and limited prospects for exiting poverty.However there is also compelling evidence that migrants can escape poverty even when they have remained in the informal sector. The majority of the new workers in the urban labor force seemed to create their own employment and start their own businesses. Self-employment comprises a greater share of informal employment than wage employment. The self- employed was engaged in a verity of activities such as street vending, prostitution, selling different items. Other migrants find jobs as daily laborers, carpenters, and mechanics, maids, personal servants and artisans. The majority of the workers entering the urban informal sector are recent migrants who are unable to find jobs in the formal sector and the main reason for taking part in the informal sector is to use what little skills they have to earn enough income to sustain their.Daily lives. The informal sector is connected to the formal sector, since it provides opportunities for people who are unable to find employment in the formal sector. Thus, the informal sector is therefore seen as a cause of urban ward migration, because it lowers the risk of the individual being unemployed once they move to the cities (Islam, 2015 p.33-34).In general however, as to the reasons of migration intellectuals conclude that migration is a response by humans to a series of economic and non-economic issues. In Ethiopia rural-urban migration also takes place mainly as a response to economic factors rather than non-economic factors (EEA 19999/2000) cited in Wesen Altaye (2015).

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