Chapter 1THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction Health is one of the most important state of the body. The word “health” refers to a state of complete emotional and physical well-being(Nordqvist, 2017).Oral health is can be identified to as that a healthy oral and related tissues that gives the individual to be able tospeak, eat, and associate with people without having any concerns, active diseases and inhibitions that can contribute to being well.Unfortunately, oral health care is of the greatest underserved needs of the disabled people.
The physiological deficit can often describe as a disability, and accurately, it is described as persons who had an impairment causing an adverse effect upon their ability to perform routine activities typical for the person’s stage of development. The disabled people forms a considerable section of the community and estimated that there are about 500 million people with disabilities worldwide. Deaf and Mute are one of the major population groups of disabled people. Neonatesbeing born with congenital hearing loss is one in six hundred babies.
Hearing impairment can be classied as deaf and hard of hearing. A person who cannot hear, speak or cannot speak at all and has to use sign language for communication with a hearing capacity of 80 decibels or less is dened asDeaf.(Pradhan, Joshi, Poudyal, Dixit, Sagtani, & Pradhan, 2015). Deaf and Mute condition affect general behavior, and impair social functioning Deaf-mute is a term which was used to identify a person who is deaf using a sign language or both deaf and could not speak. These people communicate by using sign language. Communication occurs if one can respond in a similar manner that can be understood by others.(Tin, Lin, Swe, & Mya, 2017) Historically, deaf-mute people were not possible to teach or communicate, thus they are considered as not moral, and therefore cannot own real estate, act as witnesses, or be punished for crimes. Deaf with a lowercase “d” is usually noted as a person’s hearing level through audiology. The group of people who uses the uppercase D- Deaf, are the people who uses American Sign Language (ASL), and thus a culture.Background of the StudyThe Embrace Cafe, which serves pastries and coffee, was established in 2017. It is one of the facility project of New Era University headed by Bro. Eduardo V. Manalo. It is near the Tierra Public Market and within the vicinity of the said university that islocated at the Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City. The employees in this cafe are differently abled persons. The Administration of the Church of Christ launched this project to help their brothers and sisters with disabilities to earn for living. This thesis includes what type of disabilities they have, how long they are working in the Embrace Caf©, and how their disabilities correlate with their oral health status. As stated by Biomedcentral (2019), the oral health condition of individuals with special health care needs have been reported to be influenced by various sociodemographic factors, including living conditions and severity of impairment.(Rocha, Santrain, & Meyer, 2015)This study is carried out to determine the oral health status and treatment needs of children and young adults attending a day institution for those with special needs.Statement of the Problem The study will determine the Oral Health Status of employees of Embrace caf©, at Commonwealth, Quezon City.This study seeks to answer the following questions:1. What profile of the subject as to:1.1 Age1.2 Sex1.3 Type of Disability1.4 Frequency of visit to the dentist1.5 Years of working experience2. What is the oral health status of the subjects as to:2.1 Decayed, Missing and Filled teeth (DMFT) index2.2 Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified2.2.1 Debris Index2.2.2 Calculus Index3. How does the disability of the subjects correlate to their oral health status?4. How does the oral health status of the subjects compare when grouped according to disability?HypothesisAlternative HypothesisThere is a significant problem regarding oral health status of the deaf-mute employees of Embrace Caf© due to their lack of; oral communication, confidence for oral checkup, financial status and education of each individual.Null HypothesisThere is no significant problem regarding to oral health status of the deaf-mute employees of Embrace Caf© due to their lack of; oral communication, confidence for oral checkup, financial status and education of each individual.Figure 1The paradigm showing OHIS of Deaf-mute employees of Embrace Caf© in Quezon CityConceptual Framework The main purpose of the study is to discuss the oral health concepts based on their deaf-mute disability. This research provides the information to people especially the deaf-mute community to gain more knowledge in giving them proper dental treatment. This research aimed to analyze the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth index and Oral Health Index-Simplified of the deaf-mute employees of Embrace Caf© at The New Era University in Quezon City. To obtain an accurate data for the oral condition of the deaf-mute employees, the researchers will be using an oral examination form, involving DMFT Index, Calculus and Debris Index as data source of the study.Assumption of the Study The research study is anchored on the assumption that the deaf-mute employees are honest and objective in expressing their perception about oral health based on information that are given by the researcher and the data gathered will be used for the study. The employees will recognize the importance of oral health thus will serve as their standard for maintenance of proper oral hygiene.Moreover, the dentists will able to check and diagnose the employees to assess their dental condition.Scope and Limitation of the StudyThis study will focus on the deaf-mute employees in Embrace Caf© within Manila to evaluate their oral health status. The 5 branches of the said cafe are located in Quezon City while the 6th branch is located at the Philippine Arena in Bocaue, Bulacan. The overall oral diagnosis of the dentists that examined the employees and how the dentist performs the treatment plan in the diagnosis found will be used as the data for the study. However, the researchers of this study will only be able to create or show results based on the data gathered and the checkup performed on the employees who are deaf, mute or both. Other checkups performed on employees who have other disabilities, and those who are employed in the Philippine Arena branch will not be used as a basis for the results of the study.Significance of the Study The beneficiary of the study is to investigate oral health status and behavior, and associated factors among the deaf-mute employees of Embrace Caf©. This is to help educate other people with the same disabilities who are hesitant to seek help from the professionals due to their condition. This study also raises awareness of the oral hygiene differences between a normal person and a deaf-mute person.1. To the community, the researchers aimed to educate the physically disabled for the prevention of tooth decay, tooth loss and any other oral diseases that would impede the normal function of the oral cavity. 2. To the employees of Embrace Cafe, the subjects will be more conscious about their oral health and prevent many diseases that is not only limited to the oral health but for their general well-being. It can also help them in other ways such as by booting their self-confidence to smile, proper oral hygiene and the like, with this information we can prevent not only oral diseases but oral diseases that can cause other diseases. 3. To the Centro Escolar University, ensuring a good oral hygiene among the people in that area will promote better progress to the community. Giving also the dentists’ full cooperation in the community thus giving them an outlook and by working together with love and honesty, the researchers are not only to work for the completion of the requirements and also hold their school’s word which is Ciencia y Virtud (Science and Virtue). 4. To the School of Dentistry, the researchers’ work can benefit the professors for further knowledge and information in the awareness to the community and subjects of this research whereas to provide5. free dental service, to the society to educate them that their oral health can affect their overall health so they will have knowledge of how people need dental care in that area. To the dentistry students, researchers share this research work to expand their skills and knowledge about the etiology of the disease, pathogenesis of the disease and treatment that can be useful to the help the people in the said area.Definition of TermsBiomedcentral Oral Health. This refers to an open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of disorders of the mouth, teeth and gums, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.(Liam Messin, 2019)Cariogenic Oral Bacteria. This refers to a group of oral microorganisms which have virulence factors and which are harbored on the tooth surface within the oral biofilm.(Hamada S, 2015)DMFT Index. The Decayed, Missing, Filled (DMF) index has been used for almost 80 years and is well established as the key measure of caries experiencein dental epidemiology.5 The DMF Index is applied to the permanent dentition and is expressed as the total number of teeth or surfaces that are decayed (D),missing (M), or filled (F) in an individual. When the index is applied to teethspecifically, it is called the DMFT index, and scores per individual can range from 0 to 28 or 32, depending on whether the third molars are included in thescoring. When the index is applied only to tooth surfaces (five per posterior tooth and four per anterior tooth), it is called the DMFS index, and scores per individual can range from 0 to 128 or 148, depending on whether the third molars are included in the scoring. (Lo, 2019)Embrace Caf©. This refers to Iglesia Ni Cristo (Church of Crist) established Caf© that employs differently abled person. It has 6 branches 1 in Commonwealth Quezon City, 1 in Central Condominium Quezon City, 3 in New Era University, 1 in Philippine Arena in Bulacan. According to Iglesia ni CristoNews and Updates Brother Eduardo V. Manalo inaugurated a caf© in Comonwealth worthwhile project for brethren with special needs, the Embrace Caf©. Embrace Caf© serves not only delightful pastry and delectable coffee but it serves a much noble purpose, to be of help to brethren with special needs.(Iglesia Ni Cristo News, IglesiaNiCristo.net, 2017)Oral Hygiene Index-Score. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) differs from the original OHI (The Oral Hygiene Index) in the number of the toothsurfaces scored (6 rather than 12), the method of selecting the surfaces to be scored, and the scores, which can be obtained. The criteria used for assigningscores to the tooth surfaces are the same as that use for the OHI (The Oral Hygiene Index).(Greene and Vermillion (1964), 2015)Poor oral hygiene. This refers to the oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth and teeth clean to prevent dental problems. Poor oral hygiene can result in any of the following conditions: Dental cavities. Gingivitis. Periodontal diseases. (Poor Oral Hygiene, 2018)Sociodemographic factors. The term “sociodemographic” refers to a group defined by its sociological and demographic characteristics. It refers to: of, relating to, or involving a combination of social and demographic factors. In plain terms, it looks at the life around individuals and characteristics such as age, gender,sexual orientation, race, religion, income, marital status, birth rate, death rate, average size of family, heritage, education, medical history. It is basically a grouping of people by those characteristics. Sociodemographic groups are used for analyses in the social sciences. Or for marketing and medical studies.(Rose G. Stone, 2016)The Administration of the Church of Christ. This refers to the Iglesia NiCristo (Church Of Christ) is a Christian religion whose primary purpose is to serve and worship the Almighty God based on His teachings recorded in theBible. According to Iglesia Ni Cristo, Christian religion it is not a denominationor sector,it is neither affiliated to any federation or religious bodies nor itself an assembly of smaller churches or religious organizations. The Iglesia Ni Cristo was preached by Brother Felix Y. Manalo, God’s Messenger and wasregistered in the Philippines on July 27, 1914. From its first local congregation in Punta, Sta. Ana, Manila, the Church quickly spread not only throughout the metropolis but also to the neighboring provinces in Luzon and across theislands of Visayas and Mindanao.(Iglesia Ni Cristo News, IglesiaNiCristo.net, 2017)Xerostomia. Dry mouth, or xerostomia, refers to a condition in which the salivary glands in your mouth don’t make enough saliva to keep your mouth wet. Dry mouth is often due to the side effect of certain medications or aging issues or as a result of radiation therapy for cancer. Less often, dry mouth may be caused by a condition that directly affects the salivary glands.(American Dental Association, 2017)ReferencesAmerican Dental Association. (2017). Dry Mouh Cause and Symptoms. Mayo Clinic .Greene and Vermillion (1964). (2015). Simplified Oral Hygiene Index | OHI-S. (K. M. Gisela Ladda Tayanin, Ed.) Simplified Oral Hygiene Index | OHI-S .Hamada S, S. H. (2015). Microbiology. Biology, Immunology, and Cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans , 331-384.Iglesia Ni Cristo News, IglesiaNiCristo.net. (2017). Inaguration Of Embrace Cafe. Liam Messin, M. B. (2019). Biomedcentral Oral Health, “Aims and Scope”. BMC ORAL HEALTH .Lo, D. E. (2019). Definition of DMFT index. Dental Care , 7-13.Nordqvist, C. (2017). Health. Health: What does good health really mean? , 1.Poor Oral Hygiene. (2018). Clear Correct .Pradhan, M., Joshi, U., Poudyal, S., Dixit, P., Sagtani, S., & Pradhan, D. (2015). Nepal Medical College Journal. Oral health status of Deaf and Hard of Hearing people associated with two centers in Kathmandu, Nepal , 171.Rocha, L., Santrain, M. V., & Meyer, A. (2015). Research Article. Access to dental public services by disabled persons , 2.Rose G. Stone. (2016). Quora. Retrieved from Quora. net: www.quora.comTin, W., Lin, Z., Swe, & Mya, N. K. (2017). Deaf-Mute. Review of Deaf-Mute , 3.