CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION11 IntroductionIn this chapter there will be Essay


1.1 Introduction

In this chapter, there will be a discussion on the project background study, problem statement, research objectives, scope of the study, and the significant of study.

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1.2 Background study

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) is part of the thermoplastic polymer’s family. As its name implies, ABS is created from Acrylonitrile, Butadiene and Styrene polymers. It is a material commonly used in personal or household 3D printing, which is done using primarily FDM or FFF 3D printers. It is well known in enormous part since it has extraordinary plastic properties.

It is lightweight, has good impact strength, it is abrasion resistant and affordable. Moreover, ABS polymers withstand a lot of chemical formulas. The melting temperature of ABS plastic is 200°C (392°F), making it ideal for use in relatively safe machines that are easy to operate.

Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing is comprises the use of layer-by-layer manufacturing in order to build a part by addition of material (Petrovic, Jord?, DelgadoBlasco, Jose, & Portol?s, 2009).

One of the capacities empowered by additive manufacturing is hierarchical complexity, the capacity to manufacture features at different size scales: micro, meso and macro (Dakshnamoorthy, 2016). There are a few favorable benefits of utilizing 3D Printing which are item customization, most extreme material investment funds, and steady and controlled permeable structures, which make additive manufacturing are ending up all the more fascinating to numerous modern segments such as biomedical, aerospace, automotive and tooling (Petrovic, Jord?, DelgadoBlasco, Jose, & Portol?s, 2009). According to Hopkinson, expected energy utilization cost as insignificant for its low impact on add up to cost.

Additive Manufacturing enables originators to make a plan in such different way. One of the outlines that regularly utilized as a part of AM is Shell thickness and printing temperature. Both of these are very important in AM because the result of 3d printed material structural can be affected geometrically. From a structural perspective, the primary preferred advantages gave by a shell thickness is high quality to weight proportion while being utilized to target mass saving.


1.3 Problem Statement

Despite the shell thickness of ABS material is very suitable to make the 3D printed component, there is no certain prove that shows the structures that have been produced is suitable and strong enough to withstand fatigue failure that could happen in order to apply for mechanical component. The 3D printed product, for manageability reason and when appropriate for its proposed work are not made strong all through their volume. Instead, they have shell thickness or infill to support their structures and give necessary strength to the selected automotive components will be put under loads, there is a need to advance the shell thickness so the 3D manufactured segments can support the fatigue requirement effectively with a reasonable factor of usability.

Besides, another problem that issued in AM’s technique is the optimum printing speed that could affect the strength for ABS material. This is happened because the density of the component that is made by utilizing this method is different with conventional method. Even though, the volume of component used in 3D printing is same as volume of component used in conventional manufacturing methods such as injection moulding, there is no assurance that the final properties of materials are equal since the printing speed could be different for each time.

1.4 Objective

The main objective of this research is to identify the optimum printing speed and shell thickness for mechanical properties for ABS 3D printed materials. In order to achieve the main objective, the specific objectives should be considered:

a) To identify which printing speed suitable for strength of 3D printed material.

b) To investigate which type of shell thickness that is suitable and strong enough to withstand the fatigue requirement.

c) To determine the result of the research does meet the requirement with the result of previous literature and original design.

1.5 Scope of the study

This research paper is to analyses the influence of printing speed and shell thickness on the mechanical properties of 3D printed ABS material.

1.6 Significance of the study

This research is about to find the most suitable printing speed of 3D printed ABS material and its shell thickness to apply for printed by the 3D printer in order to get in any event same necessity as existing 3D printed part by regular technique. The importance is to produce a component with a suitable structure by 3D print that can save the source of raw material in future and produce various design. In addition, by conducting this project research, it will be contributed to addition of new research to University for students to conduct an experiment based of 3D printed product.

1.7 Gantt Chart

Table 1 : Gantt Chart of EFYP1

Stage No Activity Month July 2019 August 2019 September 2019 October 2019

Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

EFYP 1 1 Project proposal Plan


2 Discussion with supervisor about project and title Plan


3 Find reading sources Plan


4 Find literature review Plan


5 Identify problem statement Plan


6 Write Chapter 1 Plan


7 Write Chapter 2 Plan


8 Write Chapter 3 Plan


9 Submit full thesis draft Plan


10 Submit final thesis EFYP1 Plan


11 EFYP 1 presentation Plan


In the preparation of Project Proposal in EFYP1 time, there are some challenges activity during its completion. One of the challenges is when is finding the suitable literature review to be as a project reference as this project is a new project for 3D Printing categorise. To overcome this problem this problem, one of the literature references has been taken as it related to this project which is the analysis on the impact process parameter using 3D printer. Other challenge is to identify the problem statement for the project. This is because 3D printing application is a new technique which has many limitations that will prevent 3D printing to be used in the industry. Consultation with supervisor gives important techniques and solution to identify the precise problem statement to be solved for the project.

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