SB025 Biology 2
[IMPACT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
TOWARD PANTHERA TIGRIS ]
Student s Name :MOHAMMAD ISWANDI BIN MOSTPHA
Matric Number :MS1825136300
I.C. Number :001021-13-1021
Felidae is cat biological famil yand its members are called felids. All felids are carnivores
in the Carnivora order. The most common felid sare ordinary cats and other members include
all wild cats including big cats (Baryshnikov ,2011 ).The Panthera is agenus in the Felidae
family (cat), which includes four known species, the tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard.
genus covers half of the Pantherinae subfamily which is the big cat (Diedrich, 2011) .Tigers is
one of the species in Panthera genus and itis an animalia that belong to the phylum Chordata,
subfilum vertebrate, class of mammals, carnivores, felidae (cats), Panthera as genus, and
species belonging to tigris. The Panthera tigri sor also commonly known as tiger is one of the
most recognizable cat with alargest size and have adark vertical stripes pattern on orange fur
with alighter underside as in figure 1.
Figure 1.0 (photographed by Asa Satria Said -NatGeo, 2014)
Backgrounds of Tigris
In1758, Carl Linnaeus ,Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist gave Felis trigasas as
the scientific name .However, in 1929 Reginald Innes Pocock who is aBritish taxonomist has
declared that tiger is an animal from genus of Panthera. Started from that time, the tiger has
tagged with Panthera tigris as the scientific name (Maz ?k, 2010). Tiger is an animals that
behave solitary ,tend to live alone and territorial. The size of the tiger shelter coverage
depends on the number of the victim and the chance of mating. A female tiger can dominate
about 20 km 2area, while the male tigers are more widespread which approximately about
60-100 km 2.Territorial coverage of the male tiger often overlaps with some female tigers
In all carnivores, tigers are the largest carnivorous cat and the third largest carnivore after
polar bears and brown bears (Barrett et al.,2011) .There are six sub-species of tigers in the
genus Panthera that are still alive today from its original number which is nine sub-species.
The remaining three sub-species of P.tigris have been considered officially extinct
(Yamaguchi et al, 2013). Three out of the nine P.tigris subspecies have been declared extinct
are Panthera tigris balica (Bali tiger), Panthera tigris sondaica (Javan tiger) ,Panthera tigris
virgata (Caspian tiger) and six others are classified as endangered which are Panthera tigris
altaica (Siberian tiger), Panthera tigris amoyensis (South China tiger), Panthera tigris
corbetti (Indochinese tiger), Panthera tigris tigris (Bengal tiger), Panthera tigris sumatrae
(Sumatran tiger), Panthera tigris malayensis (Seimon ,2013).
Hunting and destruction of habitats caused the global P.tigris population to decline from
about 100,000 in the 1900s become less than 4,000 in the 1970s (Jackson ,1997) .Today four
of the remaining subspecies of the P.tigris are considered endangered by the International
Union for Conversation of Nature (IUCN), while two further subspecies are considered to be
critically endangered. The total population of the remaining six tiger subspecies estimated
between 3,000 and 3,600 (Seidensticker ,2010) .
Extinction of Panthera tigris
Although there were once nine subspecies of tigers ,human developments have resulted in
the extinction of three of these subspecies which is Panthera tigris balica (Bali tiger),
Panthera tigris sondaica (Javan tiger) ,Panthera tigris virgata (Caspian tiger).
Panthera tigris virgata ;- once inhabited the area around the Caspian Sea, through Turkey,
Iran and Central Asia to the Chinese desert of Xinjiang .As the Russian began to colonize
Turkey in the late 1800s, they began to hunt the Caspian tiger and they also hunt the prey of
this species causing many of the species die because of starvation. It is believed that the last
Caspian tiger was killed in the 1990s (Driscoll et al, 2012).
Panthera tigris sondaica ;- is a tiger who lives in Java which has the largest body
compared to other subspecies. Adult males tiger can reach up to 250 cm long, height about 65
cm with weight of about 150 kg to 200 kg while female tigers are lighter which is between 75
kg to 115 kg. In 1950s it is estimated that there are still about 25 of this species 1972 it is
estimated that only 7remaining and in 1980s, the species are predicted to be extinct (Irawan,
Panthera tigris balica ;- is the smallest tiger among the three extincted tiger subspecies
(Budaarsa ,2013). This species are said have been wandering around the rainforest area Bali
island, Indonesian (Sherly ,2017). This subspecies was declared extinct on 1937 due to habitat
loss and poaching (Budaarsa ,2013).
Why Panthera tigris Endangered
Deforestation by human is the process that causes a natural habitat loses its ability to
accommodate existing species. In this process, organisms that have used the habitat site will
lose their habitat thereby reducing their biodiversity including tigers (Luskin et al., 2017).In
tropical region, the rate of deforestation are high which resulting great loss of biodiversity and
wild habitats including the P.tigris (Geist & Lambi n, 2002). The tropical deforestation also
one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emission (GHG) which accounting for almost 20 %
of the total anthropogenic GHG emission and amajor contributor to global warming (Baccini
et al., 2012 ). Global warming causes environment to be highly extremed, therefore it is not
habitable by the tiger (Houghton ,2012).
Human is doing an illegal hunting of tiger fortheir own sake. Among the 484 shops, a
quarter of the dealers had tiger for sale. Despite being protected by the law, the market of
selling the endangered species is still exist. The skin of tiger is believed able to posses a
magical powers which can protects the owners from black magic (Bhattacharya, 2010). On
the other hand, Chinese people also believed that some part of tiger body stored medical
properties, such as pain killer and aphrodisiac (Andrew, 2006). Aphrodisiac or also known as
love drug is a substance that increases libido (desire for sexual activity )when consumed
(Gauthaman et el,2006) .However, there is no scientific evidence supporting the claims (Still,
2003). While the bone of tiger is used in traditional medicines such as treatment for
rheumatism (Bhattacharya, 2010).
Consequences to Ecosystem
The disappearance of one species in their food chain will causing aside effect on other
species. Tiger is one of the main predator in its food chain (Sinclair et al,2010) .The loss of
the tiger can actually cau ses the amount of prey species increases. Therefore agreater threat
will presents due to high competition among the tiger sprey in order to survive .In this case,
tiger plays a vital role in keeping its ecosystem balance by maintaining between the
herbivores which is tiger sprey and the forest plant life (Mukul, 2017). Iftigers went extinct,
there wouldn tbe enough space to store and feed atoo great number of they herbivores .Tiger
is on the top of its food chain thus it has no natural predators. If the tiger were to disappear,
there would be consequences for all the links of this chain, with the effects even influencing
plants and also people life. (Dotson ,2018).
The tiger’s hunting activities and the destruction of habitats have resulted in the number
of wild tigers plunging heavily every year. At the beginning of the 20th century, it is
estimated that there are over 100,000 tigers in the world, but now there are about 3000 wild
tigers (Seidensticker ,2010) .There are many conservation efforts have been carried out in
Opening areserve forest is one of the significant project that has been done for the tiger
consevation. India is one of the country with largest population of P.tigris (Joshi, 2013) and
also known as the districts that identified as highest number of tiger scrime (Sharma ,2014).
They are running a massive integrated conservation effort called Project Tiger since 1973,
involving the opening of new reserve forests to restore the wild Bengal tigers (P.t.tigris)
(Badola ,2014). In addition, the Indian government transfers hundreds of villagers away from
tiger habitats to reduce the undesirable collision between humans and tiger and also to
eradicate the illegal tiger hunting activities (McGuigan ,2009). Other than that, in China, there
are one organization named The Save China’s Tigers who is working to introduce South
China Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis )which is confined in South Africa into its original
habitat made into areserved forest, where the tiger is retrained to hone their hunting skills like
anormal wild animals and breeding naturally (Breitenmoser et al., 2006).
In terms of law enforcement, China sgovernment has banned the use of tiger sbody part
in the production of pharmaceutical drugs and establishing a legal offense concerning the
poaching of a tiger and the offenders can be punished (Challender & MacMillan, 2014).
Chinese also banned the trade of any tiger-related materials since 1993 because all trade
activities related to that materials are illegal under the Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) ,also known as the Washington
Convention (Abensperg-Traun, 2009) .
In this research, it is clearly shows that Panthera tigris is highly rated as an endangered
species that have the tendency to become extinct from this world as the three of its subspecies.
Therefore, all parties should giving asupport on the efforts that have been carried out to save
the tiger .For the first time in century ,the number of tigers on the world is on the rise.
Governments of the countries that are related to the tigers trying to increase the population of
the species by twice in the wild life in 2022 (Joshi et al, 2016) .According to the World
Wildlife Fund (WWF), the latest tiger data says there are about 3,890 tigers in the wild life
which is up from 3,200 in 2010 after acentury of decrease (Christina, 2016). This is agood
sign for the tiger species and this should be done continuously if we want the tiger species to
be eternal for the view of future generation. In conclusion, tiger should be conserved to ensure
the ecosystem is remain balanced.
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