At a particular age category, children and young people are required to follow an expected cycle as they develop. As a child grows, he is expected to achieve certain milestones or acquire the ability to perform age-appropriate tasks, which reflect his or her developmental level. This assignment looks at the main three elements of childrens development in particular; Physical, communication and intellectual, Social, Emotional and Behavioural development.
In looking at physical development, two major facets are considered: gross motor skills, that is, the childs ability to use large muscle groups to sit, stand, walk, run and maintain balance; and fine motor skills–using the hands to write, draw, eat, dress, playing and coordinate other small muscle movements.
Both larger muscle (gross) and smaller (fine) motor movements lead to growth of child or young persons physical abilities.
Since every child or young person is unique and could possibly be grow at differing rates, most, however, will acquire skills following the age-by-age timeline described below.
Between 0-3 years
New-borns can hardly control their bodies and do not know how to make each section of their body operate which means all their physical abilities are involuntary or impulsive. Motor skills form quickly in a childs initial year of life. Upon birth, the baby can do little else than lie there helplessly. When children turn older, they learn to balance on their hands and knees and around 7 months they would start crawling, sitting up, grabbing, pointing to, rolling and so on which are the gross motor skills. A child will use his or her fine motor skills to pick stuff up and will develop his or her pincher grasp, which permits him or her to pick up smaller objects using a thumb and forefinger. In some cases, it may be possible to stand alone by nine to twelve months of age.
1 to 1 ? Years
By one year to fifteen months, a child is understood to begin to stroll and will be seen pulling themselves up on anything that can be reached, whether it’s the coffee table or mum’s leg. Once they get the feel of balancing on own legs, they be ready to stand on their own and cruise whilst gripping on to a wall. Then given a short amount of time until they are able to walk, run, jump, and leap.
It is anticipated that a 1 ? year child has more capability in the use of fine motor skills such as ability to build a tower block and scribble on stuff. 1 ? to 2 year olds should be gradually be improving their gross motor abilities such as walk backward and go up or down staircase with assistance, throw, kick a ball and jump in place. A child this age seems to be inexperienced, but the gross motor skill will improve gradually. Their fine motor abilities are also enhancing step by step, and they are capable of self- feeding with a spoon and hold an ordinary cup to drink liquids. Other fine motor skills at age 2 include stacking, using puzzles and ability to wash their hands. They are also capable to turn a doorknob, hold a crayon and draw a horizontal line.
By this age toddlers are expected to have progressed in how to regulate their movements. By three years old, a child is expected to achieve specific gross motor skills. He or she is capable of firmly walking, swinging each arms in line with the opposite limbs, and retain balance. Whilst climbing stairs, the child is capable to put one foot on each tread with no support but goes down steps using two feet on each tread with no support. Jumping from a 12-inch height with the feet together or with one foot in front begins at this period.
By age three, a childs gross motor skills have developed to include ability to stand, hop on single foot two or more times, kick a ball forwards and pedal a tricycle. The three-year-old may use an immature pencil grasp and may need to be aided in using the toilet. The child may also be capable to dress up and undress and unbuttoning buttons that are reachable. Their fine motor skills involve feeding using a spoon or fork, doing large puzzles, pouring liquids, stringing beads, brushing teeth, washing and drying hands, crafting and paper folding. Children are able to use child-safe scissors and capable to write the letters in their name. Their gross and fine motor abilities will carry on progressing and will become smoother as they mature more.
Around this age, children acquire another self-care tool that gives them a lot of independence than any other tool they will acquire at this particular phase in life toilet-training. Some 3 year olds would be ahead with their toilet routine much earlier and some would be slower.
3 7 years
Above age 3, toddlers carry on perfecting prior abilities and they are becoming more and confident and competent in fine motor abilities.
In addition to the above, a four-year-old should be able to run with good arm-leg coordination, go up and down stairs like adults, one foot per tread, skipping with just one foot and sprinting. He or she can now sketch of a human being with multiple body sections, crafting shapes with clay or play dough. Children of 4 years and above start to manipulate clothing fasteners, like zippers and snaps, and dressing up and undressing themselves single-handedly.
An ordinary 5 to 6 year old is incredibly lively and their fine motor skills are building up, resulting in the childs independence performing a lot of abilities, for instance, tying shoelaces, brushing hair and so on. In fine motor coordination, the child uses a mature pencil grasp, dresses him or herself independently and copies a triangle and other geometric patterns. A five-year-old has more coordination and likes to show off newly learned physical skills. We will often hear shouts of Look at me! Many six-year-olds will also be keen to play team sports like soccer.