Communication and Network:Assignment 1 NETWORK TECHNOLOGIESName: Gan E-ShenStudent ID: 20113536Lecturer: Dr Kalaimagal RamakrishnanBluetoothHistory A Swedish telecommunications company, Ericsson invented the Bluetooth. In 1993, Jaap Haartsen was tasked to develop a short-range radio connection that would enable new functionalities for mobile phones. In 1995, Sven Mattisson joined Haartsen , another engineer of wireless communication technologies, and the pair were able to develop multi-communicator, or MC- links.The name “Bluetooth” originated from Danish King Harald blҐtand (Bluetooth). During the 10th century, the second King of Denmark was famous in Scandinavian lore for uniting the peoples of Denmark and Norway.
The name was proposed by Intel’s head of technological development, Jim Kardach back the late 1990s. The initial purpose of the invention is to unite the PC and cellular industries with a short-range wireless link, thus the brand name Bluetooth was used as to doing something similar to what the Danish King did. The logo is a viking inscription, known as a bind rune, that merges the king’s two initials, which is the viking alphabets of H’ and B’.
What Is Bluetooth and How It WorksBluetooth is a short-range wireless technology used to transfer data between devices without cables connecting the electronic devices, allowing users to listen to music without a headset or transfer photos and document files from smartphones to their laptop or PC. Bluetooth technology is modeled on the packet-based protocol, which consists of dividing data into packets and transmitting each packet on one of the 79 designated Bluetooth channels. Bluetooth devices are managed using a star topology. An ad-hoc, short-range wireless network known as piconet is formed when a group of devices are synchronized in this manner. These piconets, which operate in an unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band ranging from 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) to 2.485 GHz, are dynamically created whenever Bluetooth devices are within ten meters of each other. Multiple piconets can operate on the same device at once while eight devices can connect to the same piconet at the same time. When connected to the piconet, one device will be the master and it can transmit data to one or more slave devices. Each piconet can handle digital communications involving printing, faxes, voice, data, and more. The ability to operate multiple piconets at the same time allows Bluetooth to provide an incredible amount of short-range telecommunications functionality. For example, the master device is my laptop. All the other devices in my piconet are known as slaves. This could include my wireless headset, wireless mouse, wireless speaker, and more. Bluetooth technology uses the principles of device “inquiry” and “inquiry scan”. Scanning devices listen to known frequencies for devices that are actively inquiring. When an inquiry is received, the scanning device sends a response with the information needed for the inquiring device to determine and display the nature of the device that has recognized its signal.Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantages of Bluetooth is that it provide wireless transmission of data which bring much convenience in creating a wireless personal area network , wireless internet connectivity, and exchanging of files without the burden of using cables or other hardware .Also, it can avoid interference from other wireless devices due to low-powered wireless signals that the technology adopts, and also because of something known as frequency hopping .Moreover , it has relatively low power consumption ,this is especially true for the Bluetooth Low Energy or BLE standard. Besides being easily upgradeable, it has massive range better than Infrared communication which greatly increases the accessibility and has extensive, almost universal availability in which most electronic devices have a built-in Bluetooth hardware such as head set, in car system, printer, web cam, GPS system, keyboard and mouse. It is simple and easy to use. Anyone despite level of education can figure out how to set up a connection and synchronize two devices. Other than these, Bluetooth technology has no line of sight hence can connect through any obstacles. It is free to use if the device is installed with Bluetooth.Disadvantages of Bluetooth technology are that it can easily lose connection in certain conditions and it has low bandwidth as compared to Wi-Fi. This makes Wi-Fi better not only for wireless local area networking but also for WPAN via Wi-Fi Direct technology, especially if distance is a problem .Furthermore , it only allow short-range communication between devices and it has lower data transmission rate of around 25 Mbps if compared to other hardware interfacing like Wi-Fi Direct can offer speeds up to 250 Mbps. Other that these, the technology can drain the battery life of a device, more so if it remains turned on. Even though Bluetooth technology is based on a standard, compatibility and functionality issues are still common because of different factors such as the specific version, drivers, and profiles, among others. Last but not least, Bluetooth technology has high security vulnerabilities. This can be accounted to the large range of Bluetooth, also to the lack of a line of sight. Such Bluetooth network can be easily hacked by highly skilled hackers. Bluetooth technology is vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks, eavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attacks, message modification, and resource misappropriation. The future is hereBluetooth 5.0, the latest version of Bluetooth technology up to date, providing 4 times the range of Bluetooth 4.2 which means we can use our smartphones up to 800 feet away from connected devices while maintaining connectivity. Bluetooth 5.0 offers twice the data transfer speed and 8 times the data capacity of the previous version (Bluetooth 4.2). To spice it up, Bluetooth 5.0 is able to support two wireless devices simultaneously due to improved bandwidth. This means music can be played from mobile phones on two speakers in different rooms or listen on two sets of wireless headphones. The Bluetooth 5.0 are more compatible for IoT devices with its improved range, data capacity and increased data transfer speed which allows most IoT devices to work well and utilize all its feature up to fullest potential.ZigBeeHistoryZigBee-style networks began to be conceived about 1998, when many installers realized that both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth were going to be unsuitable for many applications. In other words, many engineers saw a need for self-organizing ad-hoc digital radio networks. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard was completed in May 2003.In the summer of 2003, Philips Semiconductors, a major mesh network supporter, ceased its investment. However, Philips Lighting has continued Philips’ participation, and Philips remains a promoter member on the ZigBee Alliance Board of Directors.In October 2004, the ZigBee Alliance announced that its membership had grown to more than one hundred companies, in 22 countries. By April 2005, membership had grown to more than 150 companies, and by December 2005 membership had passed 200 companies. ZigBee specifications were ratified on 14 December 2004 and the ZigBee Alliance announces public availability of Specification 1.0 on 13 June 2005, known as ZigBee 2004 Specification.Later in the following year, the ZigBee Alliance announces the completion and immediate member availability of its enhanced version of the ZigBee Standard in September 2006, known as ZigBee 2006 Specification. In the 2007, ZigBee PRO, the enhanced ZigBee specification was finalized.What is Zigbee and How It WorksZigBee is an open global standard for wireless technology designed to use low-power digital radio signals for personal area networks. ZigBee is based on IEEE (Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers) 802.15.4 Standard which lays down specifications for the low data transfer rate wireless personal area network which is energy efficient and provide secure networking. Secure networking and communicating is accomplished by using 128-bit cryptographic keys. This system is based on symmetric keys, which means that both the recipient and originator of a transaction need to share the same key. These keys are either pre-installed, transported by a “trust center” designated within the network or established between the trust center and a device without being transported.ZigBee is primarily used for two-way communication between a sensor and a control system. It is employed in various f applications such as building automation systems, heating and cooling control and in medical devices. It is a short-range communication and offers connectivity up to 100 meters. ZigBee technology supports the transfer of data coming from the sensors at a rate of about 250 kbps. It operates at various frequencies such as 868 MHz, 902 ” 968 MHz, and 2.4 GHz. Since it requires low power from the device, the battery life is significantly improved.Advantages and Disadvantages Zigbee is energy efficient, as a result of the short working period, low power consumption of communication, and standby mode. Collision avoidance is adopted, with a special time slot allocated for those communications that need fixed bandwidth so that competition and conflict are avoided when transmitting data. The MAC layer adopts completely confirmed data transmission, that is, every data packet sent must wait for the confirmation from the receiver, therefore it is reliable.Zigbee has low cost of the modules, and the ZigBee protocol is patent fee free. The network can be easily set up and the structure is flexible. It has Large network capacity, one ZigBee network contains one master device and maximum 254 slave devices and here can be as many as 100 ZigBee networks within one area. ZigBee network has low vulnerability as it provides a data integrity check and authentication function. It is easy to monitor and allows control over home appliances by remote. Moreover, it will take the place of existing Infrared technology based devices. This will save cost of battery replacement as ZigBee uses lithium battery which lasts long. The network is scalable and it is easy to add or remote ZigBee end device to the network. Disadvantages of ZigBee are that it has short range and low data transmission rate hence cannot be used as outdoor wireless communication system but only be used in indoor wireless applications. It requires knowledge of the system for if one were to operate ZigBee compliant devices. It is not secure as compared to Wi-Fi based secured system therefore risky to be used for official private information. Replacement cost will be high when any problem occurs in ZigBee compliant home appliances. Like other wireless systems, ZigBee based communication is prone to attack from unauthorized people, in another context, it can be easily hacked. Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)HistoryWi-Fi was invented and first commercialize in 1997 during the creation of IEEE 802.11, a set of standards that define communication for wireless local area networks (WLANs). Following this, a basic specification for Wi-Fi was established, allowing two megabytes per second of data transfer wirelessly between devices. In 1999, Wi-Fi was introduced for home use. Wi-Fi uses electromagnetic waves to communicate data that run at two main frequencies: 2.4Ghz (802.11b) and 5Ghz (802.11a). For many years, 2.4Ghz was a popular choice for Wi-Fi users, as it worked with most mainstream devices and was less expensive than 11a.In 2003, faster speeds and distance coverage of the earlier Wi-Fi versions combined to make the 802.11g standard. In 2009, the final version of the 802.11n, which was even faster and more reliable than its predecessor was developed. Multiple input multiple output’ data (MIMOs) in which multiple antennas was used to enhance communication of both the transmitter and receiver initiated an increase in efficiency of data transmission of Wi-Fi without the need for higher bandwidth or transmit power.Later on, the 2.4 GHz has extended range but an issue arises when increasing number of devices were using the same frequency, causing it to become overcrowded and slower. On the other hand, 5Ghz became the more reliable option. To solve this problem, dual-band routers were created in order to simultaneously support connections on both 2.4 GHz and 5GHz links. Therefore, devices in range could connect to the 5GHz frequency which is more efficient and the 2.4GHz could be used as a backup. In 2012, 801.11ac was developed which the 5Ghz range had four times the speed of Wi-Fi 801.11n, a greater width, and the ability to support more antennas so data could be transmitted quicker. Beamforming concept was also created in 2012, which is explained by Eric Geier as focusing signals and concentrating data transmission so that more data reaches the target device.What Is Wi-Fi & How It WorksWi-Fi is a technology that uses radio waves to send and receive signals from nearby devices to provide Internet access to the devices connected to it. Wi-Fi provides our devices with wireless connectivity to the internet by emitting radio signal frequencies of 2.4GHz and 5GHz, based on the amount of data on the network.The two Wi-Fi frequencies are split into multiple channels so as to prevent high traffic and interference. When it comes to sharing the data across these channels, the process is to be initiated by the end user. When a user access the Internet on a device, it converts the information requested into binary code, the language of computers. Everything computers do is based in binary code, a series of 1s and 0s. These 1s and 0s are translated into wave frequencies by the Wi-Fi chip embedded in the device. The frequencies travel across the radio channels mentioned earlier and are received by the Wi-Fi router that the device is connected to. The router then converts the frequencies back into binary code and translates the code into the Internet traffic that was requested, and the router receives that data through a hardwired Internet cable. The process repeats itself until the end device receives information that requires the Internet connection to obtain.Advantages & DisadvantagesWi-Fi is Convenient because the wireless nature of such networks provides users network resources access from almost every location within their primary networking environment (a home or office). With the advancement of applications that can be done using smartphones, wireless Internet connection is particularly relevant. Wi-Fi helps us to be more productive, Users connected to a wireless network can maintain a nearly constant affiliation with their desired network as they move from place to place. We can potentially be more productive as our work can be accomplished from any convenient location. Wi-Fi can be easily deployed, Initial setup of an infrastructure-based wireless network requires little more than a single access point. Wired networks, on the other hand, have the additional cost and complexity of actual physical cables being run to numerous locations. Wi-Fi is expandable as it is easy to serve increasing number of a client without needing any additional equipment. In a wired network, providing services to additional clients requires more wiring which can be costly and difficult. Wi-Fi cost less than running physical cables to get Internet access because wireless networking hardware is at worst a modest increase from wired counterparts. Wi-Fi has high accessibility, it can be accessed by many devices at once depending on its strength and capacity. Since it is easily accessible, users can access it with any devices embedded with wi-fi chips to carry out any sort of activities that requires Internet connection.Disadvantages are that the security can be an issue, even with wireless networks utilizing some of the various encryption technologies available but some of the common ones are known to have weaknesses that hackers can take advantage of. Wi-Fi has short range of coverage, the typical range of a common 802.11g network with standard equipment can have tens of meters range radius. While it is sufficient for a typical home, it will be insufficient in a larger structure. To obtain additional range, repeaters or additional access points will have to be installed. Costs for these items can add up quickly. Wi-Fi is not very reliable because radio signals are subject to a wide variety of interference, as well as complex propagation effects which are beyond the control of the network administrator. When compared to wired networks, wireless networks provide lower rate of transmission typically 1-54 Mbps while even the slowest common wired networks can provide transmission rate of 100Mbps up to several Gbps.The future of Wi-FiAt first it was the 802.11a , then 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac wave 1, and 802.11ac wave 2. In late 2018, the 802.11ax standard was finally passed by the IEEE committee running the standard ,thus 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6) is the next wireless communications standard in the IEEE’s long-standing series of 802.11 standards, which is the foundation for the technology generally known as Wi-Fi. 802.11ax will be significantly faster from 4x to 10x faster than existing Wi-Fi, but the wider and multiple channels greatly increase throughput. 802.11ax will be less congested, 802.11ax will be able to subdivide signals even further, using a technology called MIMO-OFDM, (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing).802.11ax improves battery life as the range is typically further and data is transmitted faster so the client does not need to work as hard , thus is more energy efficient .Radio-frequency identification (RFID)HistoryRFiD4G cellular network