APPLICATION OF INTERNET OF THINGS TO HEALTHCAREINTRODUCTIONInternet of things (IOT) provides an infrastructure where diverse devices are interconnected and share information among themselves over the internet. it is centred around making smart objects the ultimate building blocks in the development of cyber-physical smart pervasive frameworks’. This is achieved with the aid of sensors, actuators, cloud, software and different wireless communication technologies like Bluetooth, wireless LANS, mobile data and radio frequency identification (RFID). The proliferation of IOT devices has brought about various benefits and reached across diverse sectors like agriculture where it has been applied to enhance the quality of farm produce, transportation with the aid of traffic congestion systems, and sport with the use of smart gear to measure the overall performance of athletes.
The benefits of IOT which stems from the interconnectivity of smart equipment over the internet includes improving the decision making of professionals based on the Big data gathered which will help create new streams of revenue for organisations, and delighting the end users by developing simple and more effective solutions.
In recent times, advancements in the medical field has brought about application of IOT technology due to the need to access patients medical data in real time. Some of the technologies include use of wearable devices, cloud computing, augmented reality and wireless communication networks. These data are used for diagnosis and treatment of diseases, assisting with physically disabled and elderly citizens, monitoring the functionality of medical equipment, and ensuring patients take their medication in correct proportion and at the appropriate time (Islam et al., 2015).PROBLEM STATEMENTOne major issue in healthcare system is the time it takes to gather medical paper records for diagnosis and effective medication of patients illness. Furthermore, accessibility of medical details from remote locations, surveillance of patients health status and medical equipment functionality in real time are all issues the application of Internet of things seeks to address in this projectPROJECT DESCRIPTIONThis project survey commences with internet of things as a whole describing its architecture and vital components which include devices, applications, communication media and its protocols, security, management and its services. Internet of things for healthcare networks describes how medical data is shared and processed between smart devices over the internet. It is divided into 3 parts which are the topology, architecture and platform. Topology describes how the constituent parts like sensors are physically arranged with different case studies shown. An example of a scenario highlights how medical data obtained from a patient through the use of sensors and wearable devices are transmitted to a router. The router in turn sends this medical data to the cloud with the aid of an operating system, network protocols and wireless communication technologies. This medical data becomes available to both patients and medical personnel anywhere for both diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Furthermore, it indicates how through use of wireless technologies, real time surveillance and video streaming is done. Architecture outline its specifications, working principles and techniques’, while the platform consists of both network platform model and computing platforms’ (Islam et al., 2015). Also discussed are challenges encountered with the incorporation of Internet of things which include safety of sensitive information from hackers, confidentiality, slow computation speed of IOT device processors, limited memory, diverse regulations and policies, scalability and mobility. The survey also covers works on internet of things applications to specific areas such as smart wheelchair for the physically disabled, heart rate monitoring, temperature monitoring for infants and monitoring non compliance of patients to their medication.The smart and intelligent wheelchair was developed by Soma, Patil, Salva & Jadhav (2018) to assist physically disabled patients. Here the movements and directions of the wheel chair were controlled with the patients voice by talking into an android application called text speech’. The text speech application converts the voice i.e. analog signal into digital signals which is processed by raspberry pi microcontroller. Some of the voice commands include start, stop, left and right commands. The raspberry pi controls the direction of the wheelchair based on the input received from the text speech application with the aid of DC motors and motor drivers. The smart wheel chair has ultrasonic sensors which alerts the microcontroller of any object in a distance of 10cm from it to prevent the wheelchair from colliding with them. Similarly a research was carried out by Zakaria, Saleh and Razak (2018) on monitoring the temperature of infants using internet of things. The average temperature of infants should be between 36 C – 37.4 C. Temperature above 38.5 C is a high temperature that can lead to febrile seizure’. Febrile seizure are seizures and convulsions that occur as a result of high temperature. To prevent such occurrences a LM35 sensor is attached to the socks worn on the feet of the child to measure its temperature. The LM35 sensor is controlled by the Espresso lite 2.0 Arduino-compatible microcontroller’ which sends this data through WI-FI to the cloud. The parent of the child gets alerts either through sounds from a buzzer or alerts on mobile android application BLYNK’ in cases where there are in remote locations.Aakash Bharadwaj. S et al., (2017) proposed a medical box which helps to monitor and ensure patients take their medication as and when due. the medical box contains sensors which collect data that is stored in the cloud. Medication information being transferred is protected by end to end encryption and can be assessed by only the patient, doctor and the pharmacist through their respective sections on the mobile application after due permission has been given by the designated hospital. The medical box is divided into three compartments each of which represent morning, afternoon and night medications respectively. A raspberry pi controller is connected to a relay board which has been programmed to control the opening and closing of this compartments with the aid of a DC motor. After each medication, the number of available drugs is being updated on the database which can be assessed by the doctor. Based on the diagnosis of the patient, the doctor will decided what prescription to continue or add which will be sent to the patient. The patient orders them and gets it delivered by the pharmacist to his place of residence.The heart is a very important organ of the body. the heart rate or pulse describes the number of beats made by the heart. It can be identified at wrists, inside of your elbow, side of your neck etc. Irawan and Juhana (2017) developed a system to monitor heart rate using an IOT wearable device. The components of the system include a Samsung S3 wearable gear, servers, access points and an health monitoring system. A heart rate sensor on the Samsung S3 gear retrieves the patients pulse/heart rate data while its WI-FI module the sends the information to the web server through an access point. The server then collates the information and displays it on the health monitoring system. If any anomaly is discovered, the server alerts close relatives and doctor via SMS so appropriate action can be taken. RELATED WORKSSport facilities are utilized to exercise, keep fit and help maintain a healthy lifestyle free of disease like obesity. Rudin, Audah, Jamil and Abdullah (2016) in their research proposed a system for the management of a campus sport facility using Internet of things. The system is subdivided into three parts namely; bookings, monitoring and sports information sections. The booking section allows authorised users to register via the internet to use the sport facility at selected times. If there is available space, the data administrator adds the user to the system. For the user to have access through the facilities magnetic doors at their allocated time, they bring along the schools ID card which is scanned with an RFID scanner. The monitoring systems allows authorised users who have been enabled by the data administrator to use the sport facility for an allocated period to be able to view the amount of people using it through the USB cameras. The sports information section provides guidance on how to use sport equipment with the aid of QR codes. The QR code is the address of the webpage that provides directions pertaining the usage of equipment, this gives authorised users the ability to operate sport machinery without the assistance from other people. The system is controlled by a Raspberry pi 2 microcontroller.CONCLUSIONFurther research is carried out to make improvements on previous applications of IOT in different parts of the medical field. This projects surveys the internet of things in health networks, various applications of IOT, the challenges and benefits encountered with its use, and technologies that enable the integration of internet of things.REFERENCES. M. Riazul Islam, (Member, IEEE), Daehan Kwak, MD. Humaun Kabir, Mahmud Hossain, and Kyung-Sup Kwak, (Member, IEEE), The Internet of Things for Health Care: A Comprehensive Survey digital object identifier 10.1109/access.2015.2437951, pages 678-708, 2015.Shridevi Soma, Nandita Patil, Salva F, Vaishnavi Jadhav, An Approach to develop a smart and intelligent wheelchair. 9th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT) pages 1-7, 2018.Nor Aini Zakaria, Fatin Nadia Binti Mohd Saleh, Mohd Azhar Abdul Razak . IOT(Internet of Things) based Infant Body Temperature Monitoring. 2018 2nd International Conference on BioSignal Analysis, Processing and Systems (ICBAPS). Pages 148-153, 2018.Aakash Bharadwaj. S, Divyank Yarravarapu, Sadiparala Charan Kumar Reddy, Thirumalaraju Prudhvi, K.S.P. Sandeep, Obulam Siva Dheeraj Reddy, Enhancing Healthcare using m-Care Box (Monitoring non-Compliance of Medication). International conference of Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA 2017) pages 167-171, 2017.Hendry Cahya irawan and juhana , Heart Rate Monitoring using IOT wearable for Ambulatory Patient. 2017 11th International Conference on Telecommunication Systems Services and Applications (TSSA). Pages 1-4, 2017.A.R.A Rudin, L. Audah, A. Jamil, J. Abdullah, Occupancy Monitoring System for Campus Sport Facilities Using the Internet of Things (IOT), IEEE Conference on Wireless Sensors (ICWiSE), pages 100-105, 2016