Each exam must be typed, well written, & proof-read. Each answer should be a healthy paragraph demonstrating your knowledge of the topic. Use your text & course materials to answer each question. Please cite page numbers. Outside sources are not required, but if used, they must be cited. Short answer response will typically be composed of one to two healthy paragraphs. One or two sentences are insufficient.
once you open the file you will see the questions inside there.
American Law Enforcement
Police officers enforce the law and ensure individuals abide by the conventional rules and regulations, which determine the standard behavior. In many instances, the police are expected to protect the people and property in an attempt to create an enabling environment where individuals can engage in a peaceful manner. In this case, the power of the police is outlined by their ability to make arrests and use force to evict unlawful persons from occupying certain premises in the community. Notably, the police play an essential role in society by curbing crime and civil disorder that may disrupt individuals from their peaceful activities.
While the police are expected to use the law to execute their functions, the policing framework of the force expects the organized group to use their influence to promote good deeds in the contemporary culture. Importantly, individuals should understand that legal enforcement translates to mandatory compliance of the law while policing requires the public to adhere to the expected legal regulations voluntarily. By analyzing the two distinctions, it is possible to control the outcomes of events in the community because of the likely behavior from the populace. Hence, the framework for understanding the policy is defined as establishing the best approach to situations in the modern world.
By measuring and managing performance, the police can achieve legitimacy and build a meaningful relationship with the public. In this regard, there is a need to portray the police as a friendly organization that is supposed to help the people rather than make arrests. Over the years, the image of different police units around the world has evolved from a critical group to a friendly force that helps the citizenry solve its problems. For instance, the New York Police Department (NYPD) has participated in various Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities aimed at giving back to society. From this observation, the police unit has connected with the people and demonstrated their humanitarian face that should be seen at all times.
Since the police is a powerful institution in the community, there is a need for the agency to be open and transparent about its activities in the modern world. Importantly, the police should disclose its operations to the citizenry to protect them in case of an exchange that may involve members of the public. In the same vein, it is essential for the police to seek trust from the populace to coordinate arrests and curb crime in areas where the public may be under constant insecurity threats from armed crime units. When people are aware of the police undertakings, it is likely for them to develop trust and feed them with information regarding the existence of notorious criminal organizations in society.
Introducing reforms in the police agency is one of the ways that can increase accountability in the institution. According to recent research, the continued use of body cameras by officers on duty or patrol has significantly reduced the chances of misconduct when interacting with civilians in their immediate environment. While the law legalizes police pursuits, negligence that often results in injury or death is punishable by law in many countries around the world. Hence, families of the victims can pursue justice using the legal platforms where rogue police officers can be prosecuted.
While responding to distress calls from the public is one of the critical roles of the police agencies, effective policing is described by putting in measures that reduce and prevent the crime rate in a given region. In the same vein, introducing response effectiveness through community outreach and crime mapping are some of the policies that can be used to increase the performance of the police unit. By working closely with the public, it is possible for law enforcement agencies to discover the suspect location and move in place to make arrests, a move that will control the outcomes of events in the region.
Individuals should seek to understand the evolution of the police institution to engage the law enforcement agents and collaborate in their undertakings in their immediate environment. While many people believe that the police do not solve social problems, the agency has evolved to become an instrumental organ in the contemporary world. Unlike in the past where police would racially and openly discriminate individuals from a particular population group, the agency attempts to respond to issues equally without applying bias.
The Metropolitan Police Service was established on September 29, 1829, after the Royal Assent was issued to control the outcomes of events in the medieval world. Importantly, the police institution is believed to be a product of American heritage that sought to address issues that took place in the community. Specifically, the agency was founded on limited police authority, valued individual liberty and government authority, and respect for the Bill of Rights.
When the English Colonists controlled native America, the region was exposed to a borrowed system of governance that sought to control the behavior of individuals and their interactions with other people. In this case, the British introduced the Sheriff, the constable, and the watch who were tasked with the role of supervising the populace and determining the outcomes of events (Wolf, Holmes, & Jones, 2016). However, in the new America, the police unit has evolved and adopted American features that distinguish it from other police agencies around the world.
The First Modern American Police was realized in the 1830s and 1840s as the country was dealing with a new wave of riots and industrialization. From this observation, the authorities were compelled to develop a viable approach of responding to the issues that disrupted the peaceful activities in the new America (Davis, Carr, Southwell, & Beletsky, 2015). In the wake of a total breakdown involving law and order, the US moved in quickly to modernize its police agency to address the pertinent issues in the community.
In the Nineteenth Century, politics influenced the outcomes of events because of its impact on the perspectives of individuals. Considered to be the political era that shaped America’s destiny, the police unit was caught up in a mixture of roles as each in the political environment used the legal enforcement agencies to pursue their interests. Mainly, the police officers were corrupt, inefficient and demonstrated a high level of unprofessionalism because of the compromise caused by their political involvement.
Due to the outcome of events witnessed in the political era, there was a need to professionalize the police force. Notably, the organized movement for professional police officers and the introduction of technology paved the way for reforms in the legal enforcement agencies. Mainly, the telephone and patrol vehicles enabled police officers to respond to various issues and maintain an identity in society, which increased their credibility and relationship with the public.
In the modern world, individuals can call the police when they encounter a criminal activity in their immediate environment. In the same vein, active police presence on social media and the internet has enabled the agency to address numerous issues compared to the olden times when they would be informed about an attack by real reporting. Going back to the time when the police would respond to criminal activity after the criminals have escaped, the impact of technology has enabled individuals to trust the police and reliably inform them of any suspicious event in their surroundings.
In the 1960s, urbanization saw the courts threaten the jurisdiction of the police by equipping the public with rights and freedoms that allowed them to express their opinions freely. In this case, the police came close to riots initiated by students who challenged the military’s involvement in Vietnam and its impact on the lifestyles of the people. During this time, the police were dealing with a new range of criminal activities that were affected by Supreme Court sanctions, which discouraged arrests and home searches.
Law enforcement in the US is a significant institution that caters the interests of the populace. Over 18,000 federal, state and local agencies address various needs of the people and importantly, the local governments. In so doing, the agencies can address the issues of the people and avoid external influence from authoritative sources.
In the US, there are over 18,000 police agencies that are further subdivided into other groupings. In this case, the country’s law enforcement agencies can address the emerging issues in the community while providing viable solutions that can be explored to solve related problems affecting the livelihoods of individuals.
Lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies has contributed to the ineffectiveness of the police and surge in criminal activities across the US. While the police may not attend to an issue beyond their boundary, criminals do not recognize political jurisdictions, a move that enhances the crime rate in many places across the US (Weitzer, 2015).
City Police comprise 70 percent of the law enforcement agencies in the US, a move that denotes their importance in responding to crime and facilitating calmness in the neighborhoods. In this case, the Municipal Police is expected to address the most complex issues that affect individuals in their daily activities and interactions with other people.
Constable is a defunct role in the US law enforcement structure where the office holders are expected to process warrants, transporting prisoners, and securing district judges. In their part, coroners are charged with the role of investigating a crime. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigates deaths caused by homicides. On the other hand, the special district police serve the interests of individual government agencies.
The Federal Law Enforcement Agency is a small unit that handles relatively complex issues affecting the safety of individuals in the country. However, the role of each federal agency is defined by the federal statute that focuses on improving the healthy relationship of individuals in their immediate environment.
The private security industry in the US is an integral aspect of American law enforcement because of its contribution to crime elimination and protection of personal property in the country. Currently, the agency is charged with the mandate of protecting the interests of the people in public and private complexes.
Wolf, R., Holmes, S. T., & Jones, C. (2016). Utilization and satisfaction of volunteer law enforcement officers in the office of the American sheriff: An exploratory nationwide study. Police practice and research, 17(5), 448-462.
Davis, C. S., Carr, D., Southwell, J. K., & Beletsky, L. (2015). Engaging law enforcement in overdose reversal initiatives: authorization and liability for naloxone administration. American Journal of Public Health, 105(8), 1530-1537.
Weitzer, R. (2015). American policing under fire: Misconduct and reform. Society, 52(5), 475-480.