According to the Britannica Encyclopedia, Population growth is the rate of natural increase combined with the effects of migration. Factors that lead to population growth include; high birth rate, migration, low infant mortality, improved lifestyle, Education, government policy, economic growth, improved health systems and so forth.According to a report released by United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UN DESA) report, World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision, the current world population is over 7.7 billion and its predicted to increase to about 8.
6 billion by 2030, 9.8 billion by 2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100 respectively.Linking to the report, the increase in the world’s population growth can be observed in the high-fertility countries, mainly Africa and others countries such as India and China which are already highly populated.From 2017 to 2050, according to the report, it is expected that half of the world’s population growth will be mainly concentrated in nine countries namely India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Ethiopia, the United Republic of Tanzania, the United States of America, Uganda and Indonesia (ordered by their expected contribution to total growth).
Currently China and India are the two most populous countries in the world making up 19% and 18% of the global population. Countries with the highest population globally include; China having a population of about 1.4 billion and India 1.3 billion, USA having over 328 million, Indonesia 269 million ,Brazil, 212 million, Pakistan 204 million, Nigeria 201 million, Bangladesh167 million, Russia 143 million and Mexico 132 million amongst others. It is predicted that around 2024, the population of India is expected to surpass that of China and Nigeria to surpass that of the United States by 2050.Africa currently continues to experience high rates of population growth. It predicted by world meters that by 2050, the population of 26 African countries would have double their current size while would have increased by at least a factor of five; these include Angola, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Somalia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia.Nigeria currently has the seventh largest population in the world which will subsequently surpass that of the United States by about 2050 and will become the country with the third largest population in the world.The population growth in Nigeria has been on the increase and about 198 million, with the urban population growing at the rate of 6.5% every year according to The National Population Commission 2017 report. Which as of 2016, the World Bank estimated the population to be around 186 million.However, currently according to new report released by the he United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA) 2019 State of the World Population Report, Nigeria now has a estimated population of about 201 million.The report also revealed that Nigeria’s population grew by about 5 million people from a population of about 195.9 million in 2018.The concentration of global population growth in developing countries presents a considerable challenge to governments in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which seeks to end poverty and hunger, expand and update health and education systems, achieve gender equality, women’s empowerment and reduce inequality.The quality of health care services in most developing societies of the world is largely determined by the quality of its population. Health according to the World Health Organization (WHO 1947,1948) is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but also a state of complete physical, psychological and social well-being.Health is wealth so goes the popular maxima, this means that good health care delivery in a society is part of the foundation on which it builds its wealth. The health system presently in Nigeria has a tree tier structure to provide health services to its people; the primary, secondary and tertiary health care (Osas,1992). The first tier known as the Primary Health Care (PHC) has been developed to provide health care services to the majority of rural people. The provision of care at the primary tier is mostly the responsibility of Local Governments with support of the State Ministry of Health in accordance with the National Health Policy (Nigerian Constitution 1999). The primary level comprises of three types of health institutions which include The Sub-Centre (SC), The Primary Health Centre (PHC) and The Community Health Centre. The rural health care infrastructure has been developed to provide primary health care services through a network of integrated health and family welfare delivery systems. The second tier known as the secondary health care provides specialized services to patients referred from the primary health care level services through outpatient and in-patient departments of hospitals. It provides general medical, surgical, pediatric and community health services and the state government is responsible for the care and functionality of this level of health care .Lastly the tertiary health care which consists of very highly specialized services which are usually provided by teaching hospitals which usually most of the time, provide care for specific diseases mostly which the other health care can’t adequately provide. The provision and care at this level is the sole responsibility of the federal government.The Primary Health Care System Development (PHCSD) Agency is responsible for making the availability of health services and its accessibility in Nigeria thus ensuring that the health facilities and services are within reach ensuring that Nigerians are protected against poor health, building the capacity of its human resource and providing essential logistics support for the implementation of Primary Health Care.