AbstractThis paper presents main factors that lead to the emergency of refugees Essay

AbstractThis paper presents main factors that lead to the emergency of refugees. The number of refugees are fluctuating intensively from millions to ten million in critical situations. Nowadays, due to globalization refugees are able to move to the long distance destinations by modern means of transport. Majority of them prefer to flee their native country to the states like US and UK. The research question is what are the main reasons for refugees to flee their country of origin to the west ” US versus UK in the recent years.

In this study there is supposed to conduct interviews with Azerbaijani and Russian refugees that leave their country for the UK and US. I will try to find out a cross-section approach to the transforming identities of 3 persons. Murad ” is the Azerbaijani citizen from upper class who had difficulties with officials. Being a member of opposition party made his life worse as He had been restrained by political officials in the realization of his ideas.

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Political persecution made him leave the country to the US. Ilgar was obliged to marry the girl by the pressure of family and relatives with whom he had no common interests and mutual love. This pressure made him leave the country for the UK. Elnur is another person who left for the US for the welfare of his family from where he had no chances to integrate into labor market. The concept of refugee is someone who has been forced to flee the country of origin for civil wars, political persecution, human right violations, race and etc.IntroductionThe number of displaced persons worldwide exceeds 65 million, the largest number ever recorded (UNHCR The UN Refugee Agency, 2016). As one of the largest refugee resettlement countries, the United States accepted nearly 85,000 refugees in 2016 (Pew Research Center, 2017), and the quota was raised to 110,000 for 2017 (U. S. Department of State, 2016). However, due to the change in administration, the 2017 number has been suspended.According to UNHCR statistics at the end of 2017 there were 121,837refugees, 40,365pending asylum cases and 97 stateless persons in the UK.The term refugee has been used in different form over years. Nevertheless, the term of refugee was already know from 20th centuries from the refugee crisis in Russia and Balkans. The universal acceptance of the problem of refugees occurred until the establishing of United Nation (UN) system in 1945.The universal acceptance definition can be found in the Convention related the status of Refugees of 1951 and the UNHCR statue of 1950 which referred refugees as those subject that:Owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for the reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who not having g a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.the term refugee shall also apply to every person who, owing to external aggression, occupation, foreign domination or events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality (OAU 1969: 2)An important element to considerate in the refugee definition is that this cannot be returned to his country of origin until minimal safety conditions for returning refugees could be guaranteed. This principle, known as non-refoulement is established in the article 33 of the UNHCR 1951 Convention, when it mentions that:No contracting state shall expel or return (refouler) a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, membership pf a particular social group or political opinion.Following this argument, it is the state who gives or in which is sought shelter to one that should grant not to take the measure of the return.on the study the main forces that drive refugees are further factors are economic factors, socio-political factors and ecological factors. Reasons behind this factors are loss of hope, limited livelihood opportunities, feeling unsafe, political persecution, wars, civil war natural disasters and etc.Literature ReviewInternational law support the right of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers no matter how and why they move to another country. They have the right to be protected as everyone else. These specific protection are included: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 14), which states that everyone has the right to seek and enjoy asylum from persecution in other countries The 1951 UN Refugee Convention (and its 1967 Protocol), which protects refugees from being returned to countries where they risk being persecuted The 1990 Migrant Workers Convention, which protects migrants and their families Regional Refugee law instruments (including 1969 OAU Convention, 1984 Cartagena Declaration, Common European Asylum System and Dublin Regulation)Refugee influx became a phenomena in the recent years. Starting from 2014 year the majority of developed countries prefer to flee to the European countries. I should underline that the number of refugees (220.000) arrived in Europe by boat last year was a record. The number of refugees increased in the recent years up to (900.000) people. According to statistics compiled by UN most of refugees are Syrian. This movement is because of Syrian civil war. The people encounter the unstoppable war so, the only way out the situation is to move to the countries with better life condition. The most preferable countries are Greece, Italy, Spain, Bulgaria, and Malta so on. But not all refugees are from Syria. Italy hosts the significant number of refugees are from North Korea because of dictatorship regime. The conflict in Afghanistan and Iraq also make people move to Greece. ( and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate are the main causes for refugee crises. According to the UN refugee agency report wars and persecutions are the essential reasons of refugee crisis in 2015. Every 25 per minute have been obliged to be displaced from the homes in 2015 ( rights violationsPeople are suffering from corruption by those who occupied political positions in some countries such as Uganda, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, South Sudan, Sudan, Eritrea are the top of the most corrupt countries in the whole world. The citizens are suffering by those in power who are grabbing their property. Almost all the resources are in hand of those few persons in political positions. This situation of discrimination and inequality leads to displacing of people from their origin country to the other. Environment and climatePeople displaced by the impact of climate change are called climate refugees. The environmentalists warnings that there is expected 1 billion people suffer from climate change in the next 40 years. But cases show that people suffering from climate change could rarely cross the border rather than leaving for short period of time. They mostly prefer to get accustomed to the new circumstances happened to them.Following the effects of hurricane Katrina in 2005, the term “refugee” was sometimes used to describe people displaced by the storm. There was mentioned that the term should not be used to describe Americans displaced within their own county, and the term “evacuee” was substituted in its place. ( behind movement of refugees to EuropeLoss of hopeIt’s almost 5 year since civil war happened in Syria and no solution is expected for many refugees. They are miserable, desperate and concerned about their future.Limited livelihood opportunitiesThe lack of access to the labor market was one of problems for refugees relocated in Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan. The influx of Syrian refugees made a great competition for jobs in these areas. The jobs in construction sphere is more popular due to drop of oil prices. Feeling unsafe The great deal of Iraqis have reported to UNHCR that they are feeling unsafe while their being in country. The population see the migration as the key for release from unsafety environment. ( the paper involves Qualitative research, I will try to go through different aspects of this issue and get answers to the given research questions. Because of possibilities to interviews, observe, sampling groups and handling questionnaires to refugees in chosen location: New York (USA), San-Diego (USA), London (UK) to get the full picture of the problem. Furthermore, because of specific timeline of the research topic and the lack of public literature, the data will be chosen mostly from articles, newspapers, and the latest analytical reports by institutions. For better research, will be used descriptive type of analysis. The situation, will be analyzed by putting different social and political scenario frames. This will help to understand the process and also to predict the future problems. In this paper, interview is a research tool for collecting data. I will try to conduct the study to individuals from the population so that the results of my study can be used to derive conclusions. The population gives the sample, and then it takes conclusions from the results obtained from the sample. 3 Participants are supposed to be interviewed by semi-structured interview questions to gain their perceptions of the usefulness and relevance of the sessions. I aimed to learn how they feel about being refugee in super democratic countries versus being proscribed in their home country and what are the positive and negative sides for refugees to be relocated mostly in the US and the UK. The other my question that I am mostly interested in did they manage to achieve that freedom or welfare in those chosen countries and what way. I focused on 3 persons to be a sample of my study. In total, I plan to give 8-10 questions face to face to the interviewees using both Russian and English languages. Having known both languages and culture it will be easy to comprehend their life experience. It is inevitable to mention as an example the famous source of the story of Carina Hoang who was a refugee to the US, in her TED x talk Being a Refugee is not a Choice is a narration about the extent of difficulties faced by refugees. ( sum up my method, these factors are considered independent variables and the type of measurement scale is nominal. Whereas, the dependent variable is refugees that is influenced by independent variables and the type of measurement scale is ordinal and I can categorize them as low, medium or high level by influx of refugees.My unit of analysis are groups of independent states or population of particular states.ConclusionDespite this strengthening of border security, the growth of migrants and fforced displacement in recent years. The increase in forced displacement in recent years due to a number of interconnected reasons. We see the continued development of internal armed conflicts in which civilian populations are particularly vulnerable. The increase in internal violence has increased the number of refugees worldwide. The sudden increase of refugees in certain regions also represents an increasing economic and ecological pressure to the native population, with the corresponding political consequences involved. This same conflicts with so called low intensity conflicts also generating increments in IDPs figures, even in regions where this phenomenon did not exist before, such as Mexico or Mali. The increase in economic inequality has also led to the increased migration flows from developing countries to developed countries. Another, reason that has begun to cause migration flows has been the effects of climate change especially on vulnerable populations in developing countries.The motivations of the individuals to emigrate, either for security, economic well-being or both cannot be considered as a one-dimensional process. We can say that the complexity of the phenomenon is overwhelming. Thus we can say that the term refugee although it is extremely useful for humanitarian purposes, is ust a subcategory of forced migration and as any category implies a political discourse.

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