?8.1? E-government requires government ?facilitations
Governmental challenge is one of the ?most recognized obstacles that hinder e-?government systems implementation. In ?other words, e-government systems face ?major institutional challenges. ?Governments should facilitate access to ?technical and financial support for ?adopting e-government systems. ?Appropriate environment is necessary for ?the systems. Clearing this environment ?from any problems is first responsibility ?of public sectors. Both governmental and ?private sectors should assure the systems ?in the way that there will be succession ?of governing electronically. ?
?8.2? E-government committed ?leadership: ?
Any sector of our life needs good ?leadership.
Better leaders lead their ?organizations to better stages. ?Establishing effective and transparency ?systems is one of good leadership, which ?is a good characteristic of good ?governance. E-government systems ?develop these and other better sides of ?governments. A committed leadership ?supports e-government systems to reach ?a progressed stage. Good governmental ?leadership is very important for adoption ?of e-government systems.?
? Leaders should be cost and information ?communication technology sensitives, ?and long-run visionary for stakeholders ?buy-in, resource savers, and facility ?providers for e-government to break the ?goal.
For this reason, all governmental ?organizations must recognize e-?government systems as their priority. ?Leadership style, organizational ?structure, cultural moods, partnership, ?project coordination, cultural and ?institutional framework, personnel ?qualification and promotion norms affect ?e-government benefits and advantages. ?E-government systems insurance also ?needs other technical and financial ?services to be effective (Mothataesi & ?Mazebe, 2014).?
Naturally, information communication ?technology depends on effective ?leadership. For a government, to be ?transparent, democratic or accountable ?and effective and efficient, there should ?be addressing the following challenges. ?Committed, loyal and long run looker ?leader is crucial for e-government as it is ?true for any national issue. Sometimes it ?needs risk-taking decisions to overcome ?critical issues in breaking goals. ?
?8.3? E-government needs organizational ?structure
Traditionally, governmental ?organizations are hierarchical. This ?creates many obstacles between ?applications of technology and ?governmental leaders of organizations. ?To support e-government projects we ?need a high level routing committee. ?This committee will monitor ?implementation activities, ensure e-?government investments plat forms and ?set clear mandates and positions or ?responsibilities for adopting e-?government systems. This committee ?designs supportive policies and ?guidelines, practice and processes styles ?and administration buy-in. government ?employees need well-arranged training to ?improve their understanding of the e-?government systems models. When ?employees are well trained, they will fit ?immediately the technology progression ?and add awareness of its benefits because ?general awareness of this innovation is ?an important factor to accelerate the e-?government adoption process at public ?and agencies level. An appropriate ?institutional framework for e-government ?systems applications insurance assures ?not only emergency of all directional ?qualified development but also ?sustainability of that developmental ?insurance (Mothataesi & Mazebe, 2014). ?
This is because there is no static working ?style, which leads toward advancement. ?Decisions, regulation frameworks, ?budget amounts and skill levels will be ?beyond the existing conditions. Since e-?government systems require collective ?conflict resolving and problem solving, ?the whole governmental sectors may ?need to change their styles to fit the ?innovation (Misuraca, 2007). Even ?stakeholders (not-state actors) will be ?involved in institutional changes that ?they should cooperate with e-?government leaders. ?
?8.4? E-government needs better human ?skill
E-government systems are technology-?wise that they need a well trained stuff of ?personnels possessing enough skills. ?Developing human skills and capacities ?is always supportive in managing e-?government systems. Well skilled human ?resource plays important role in ?integrating and sustainability of the ?systems. Training and skills are ?fundamental and their absence causes ?chaotic conditions in e-government ?systems because those people who lack ?skills of utilization of technology are ?functionally disadvantaged of e-?government services. This will be ?challenge of e-government systems in ?the real world as it is observed in some ?developing countries. Both technical and ?financial assurance always result good ?government systems by facilitating its ?capacity to provide better services to its ?people. E-governance is also a ?knowledge creation and management. ?
?8.5? E-government needs high ?information communication ?technology literacy rate
Before implementing e-government ?systems, citizens should know how to ?use computer and internet services. ?Especially educated people should know ?how to use ICT products. Governments ?should work hard in avoiding ICT ?illiteracy in the meanwhile, they should ?facilitate applications of e-government. ?Developing countries, like Ethiopia, are ?expected to maximize ICT literacy rate in ?the way that their people can utilize ?services of e-governing systems. ?
Social obstacles like illiteracy, ?backwardness and less in come are some ?of social challenges facing e-government ?systems. Internet access makes a society ?use e-government systems to benefit ?from it. Those who do not have this ?access or are not educated will be unable ?to use e-government systems.?
?8.6? E-government requires facilitated ?information communication ?technology infrastructure
E-government needs good Internet ?service and telecommunications ?structures. In most developing countries, ?these infrastructures are not well ?developed. High cost plus poor ?connections face e-government systems. ?Thus, governments should focus on ?connection quality and price per use. ?Otherwise, users may not be interested in ?using the systems. ?
Infrastructure inadequacy is the number ?one hindrance in e-government adoption ??(Mothataesi & Mazebe, 2014, p. 112). ?This inadequacy may be related to either ?information communication technologies ?or telecommunication. This problem is ?common in most developing countries ?especially in Africa. We can observe one ?of the most barrier of e-government ?implementation that is lack or weakness ?of information communication ?technology infrastructure. ?Telecommunication systems are vital for ?e-government systems. According to ?Ndou (2004), for appropriate sharing of ?information there must be good ?availability of internet access and open ?up new channels for communication and ?any other online services (Ndou V. , ??2004). ?
Lack of technological infrastructure is a ?major bottleneck for e-government ?systems adoption. To utilize the benefits ?of e-government systems, there should ?be appropriate e-government ?infrastructure.?
?8.7? E-government needs better internet ?and telecommunications ?infrastructures
E-government systems should have to ?get enough internet connection and ?telecommunication infrastructures. High ?cost of internet access and low hand ?width in both fixed line and wireless ?access networks are some of the ?challenges confronting e-government ?systems in developing countries (Silva, ??2015, p. 316) in most developing ?countries there is insufficient ?technological framework of e-?government systems. ?Telecommunications facilities are not ?well developed (Fatile, 2012). ?Performances of e-government systems ?depend on internet connection. The weak ?internet connection cannot invite e-?government utilization. Therefore, e-?government systems must get fair ?internet connection to provide required ?advantages. Governments are expected to ?focus on network availabilities and ?strength before and after adopting these ?systems to provide citizens successful e-?government systems (Gil-Garcia & ?Ramon, 2013)?
?8.8? E-government is affected by ?bureaucratic bottlenecks
Flexibility is the key in adopting e-?government systems because technology ?needs it (Evans, 2017). Rigid ?bureaucracy system affects e-government ?systems. E-governance systems by ?nature ensure speed and flexibly system ?to get rid of time wasting thereby to fulfil ?all forms inefficiency. So, bureaucratic ?bottlenecks become counter-productive ?to e-governance.?
?8.9? E-government needs finance ?allocation ?
Unless governments promote a cost-?effective risk layering of e-government ?systems implementation, succession in ?the electronic governance will be ?difficult. Thereby transformation from ?backwardness to modern style will be ?very slow. E-government systems can ?fail unless they are financed. ?Governments should rethink the role of ?e-government systems. They should ?provide the systems enough budget.?
Lack of awareness of e-government ?adoption costs is a key obstacle to e-?government systems. E-government ?costs are mostly intangible and few are ?not. Unless government pays attention to ?these costs, e-government systems will ?fail. This is what is observed in most ?developing countries. There are costs, ?which must be analyzed carefully to ?examine the risks and obstacles ?hindering e-government systems ?adoption before introducing the systems. ?
Since e-government projects stand for ?public services they should not be ?underfunded. They should be provided ?full-scale budget of adoption. In many ?developing countries e-government ?systems are adopted because they fail.?
?8.10? ? E-government needs ?government promotion
Among the key challenges that face e-?government systems is promoting or ?enhancing system insurance. E-?government systems face institutional, ?financial, technical, and operational ?challenges (Mahul & Stutley, 2010). I ?will try to discuss each of these ?challenges and potential solutions. Lack ?of programs to promote e-government ?benefits: – strong promotion is ?considered as one of the most powerful ?factors of successfulness of some new ?thing. For e-government systems ?adoption it plays an important role. ?Governmental sponsorship is very ?important for e-government systems ?implementation. Naturally, technology ?adoption requires promotion and ?advertisement to accomplish its tasks ??(Digital .) If government does not ?promote, no insurance to the systems. ?There must be Public-private ?partnerships regulatory framework.?