20 multiple-choice questions!

1 (5 points) Piaget’s concrete operational stage is characterized by thought that is

related to the child’s motor activity

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logical and flexible


rigid and influenced by appearances

2 (5 points) The ability to mentally retrace steps of an operation is known as

transductive reasoning

animistic thinking

inductive reasoning

reversibility of thought

3 (5 points) Horizontal decalage refers to

development through the four major Piagetian stages

development within a stage

the tendency to focus on width rather than height in conservation tasks

children’s development of a skill across all content areas simultaneously

4 (5 points) In some cultures, children are accustomed to dividing their toys, treats, and drinks for equal distribution with each other. these children acquire conservation


at the same time as other children


with no evidence of horizontal decalage

5 (5 points) Grouping related items together is a memory strategy known as





6 (5 points) Margaret shows exceptional talent in drawing and sculpting, able to recreate entire scenes and landscapes from memory. According to Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Margaret has particular strengths in _____ intelligence.





7 (5 points) A test that asks children to name as many uses of a brick as they can is tapping

crystallized thinking

simultaneous processing

convergent thinking

divergent thinking

8 (5 points) Kevinhas an above-average IQ, but struggles with reading. Kevin

is probably just not trying hard enough in school

has mental retardation

has a learning disability

has a behavior disorder

9 (5 points) Mainstreaming refers to

placing pupils with learning difficulties into regular classrooms

placing physically, but not mentally, disabled children in regular classrooms

ability grouping

placing all same-age students into regular classrooms regardless of type or severity of their problems

10 (5 points) Recent research indicates that American school teachers emphasize

abstract thinking

analysis and synthesis of new information

applying ideas and concepts to real-life situations

rote memory and repetitive drills

11 (5 points) A child who energetically pursues meaningful achievement in his or her culture is exhibiting




perspective taking

12 (5 points) Theo’s grandmother wants to make sure he successfully resolves Erikson’s psychosocial conflict of middle childhood. She should give Theo opportunities to

build trust in others

learn to initiate conversations with girls

become more empathic

develop competence at useful skills

13 (5 points) Which of the following statements accurately reflects the change in self-description that typically occurs between ages 8 and 11?

They emphasize competencies when describing themselves

Children will describe positive, but not negative, traits

Children tend to describe themselves by focusing on specific behaviors

They are more likely to describe themselves in unrealistically positive ways

14 (5 points) George Herbert Mead described the self as

Our image of who we would like to be

A blend of what important people in our lives think of us

A unique perception that has nothing to do with what others think

Based on social comparisons

15 (5 points) According to Harter,

self-esteem takes on a hierarchical structure by first grade

all four separate self-esteems make equal contributions to general self-esteem

academic competence weighs as much as the other three self-esteems combined

physical appearance contributes most to general self-worth in middle childhood

16 (5 points) Compared to children in America, children in Japan and Taiwan score _____ in academic achievement and _____ in self-esteem

lower; higher

higher; lower

higher; higher

lower; lower

17 (5 points) Which statement about the self-esteem of American young people is true?

American cultural values have de-emphasized a focus on self-esteem

In spite of lower achievement and more adjustment problems, self-esteem has risen sharply

Compared with previous generations, the self-esteem of American young people has dropped sharply

Children benefit from compliments, even when they are not based upon real attainments

18 (5 points) Learned-helpless children

do not develop the metacognitive skills necessary for high achievement

are more likely to see the connection between effort and success

attribute their failures to bad luck

are more persistent than other children

19 (5 points) Attribution retraining

is easily done with children of any age, no matter how low their self-esteem

should be taught in middle childhood, before children’s views of themselves become hard to change

is only effective if done during the preschool years

is most effective with high schoo students who are able to think abstractly

20 (5 points) Emotional self-efficacy is

the capacity to imagine what other people are thinking and feeling

a feeling of being in control of one’s emotional experience

the ability to understand and respond sympathetically to the feelings of others

the ability to resist an impulse to engage in socially disapproved of behavior

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