12 Research Hypotheses Pollutants in the Arctic affects Essay

1.2 Research Hypotheses

Pollutants in the Arctic affects the temperature of the region.

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Calculating the discounted cash flow of an investment could reduce financial risk.

Plants in ozone would grow less than the plants in air.

Chemical Oxygen Demand of wastewater increases as Dissolve Oxygen decreases

1.3 Research Specific Aim and Objectives


-Ensuring sustainable environmental protection of the Arctic territory through concise risk management approach of pollutants and assets.


-Assess environmental risk by using meteorological data of Arkhangelsk weather temperature to run regression analysis of acquired data’s to assess risk.

-Examine the effect of tropospheric ozone long term impacts on plants as a result of pollutants.

-To calculate assets risks and investment analysis of prospective project in order to ascertain the proposed hypothesis.

-To examine the chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand of wastewater.

1.4 Research Strategy

First Analysis

To assess environmental risk, monitor Arkhangelsk weather temperature and running regression analysis of acquired data’s to assess risk.

Significance: This research will aid more detailed mathematical model and data analysis which will simulate more accurate temperature forecast of the polar region that is influenced by pollutants.

Innovation: Using new data to analyse the temperature by using the highs of temperature to generate data for modelling, thereby forecasting the effect of pollutants on the stratosphere which will aid further research on sustainable environmental risk management.

Approach: 2 years (2017 and 2018) highs of temperature data of Arkhangelsk from Russia meteorological site, used Microsoft Excel to calculate basic statistical characteristics and other relevant details, plot a frequency scatter plot of the minimum and maximum temperature from the Excel table, run the regression statistics of the graph, calculate the parameters of the linear regression equation, rate the closeness of the relationship, Used secondary (general) comparative assessment of the elasticity coefficient power factor due to the result, Rate it using the average, rate using Fisher F-test statistical reliability of the results of the regression modelling, Finding the linear regression equation, Repeat the same procedure for the second year temperature data, Analyse the results to come up with findings that would back up or nullify my hypothesis.

Second Analysis

To calculate discounted cash flow of a prospective project in order to ascertain the proposed hypothesis.

Significance: Environmentalist should not limit there scientific knowhow to researches with much visibility of direct negative impact, but also on other part of human society that are relevant for human comfort on earth which not addressed could lead to negative externalities on environmental economy.

Innovation: Inclusion of asset and investment analysis in environmental research and applying a unique technique that will allow investors ‘do it themselves’, to prevent minimize investment risk, and as well help preserve the financial ecosystem of heavy projects which effect may inversely affect environmental objects.

Approach: The research methodology requires gathering relevant data from specific investment sources and using them to develop model logic, design risk outputs, define input distributions, set number of iterations, run simulation and analyse result of financial risks.

Third Analysis

Examining the effect of tropospheric ozone long term impacts on plants as a result of pollutants.

Significance: Signalling on the effect of tropospheric ozone on flora.

Innovation: Used a precise method to unleash a more profound evidence on the effect of tropospheric ozone on plants.

Fourt Analysis

To examine the chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand of wastewater.

Significance: It will enable researches on arctic issues to be aware that there are still release of pollutants to the water bodies without following the recommended standard before the release of effluents.

Innovation: Using biochemical oxygen and chemical oxygen demand to run empirical analysis on wastewater in order to determine the effect of pollutants on dissolve oxygen in water.

Approach: An Experiment-based approach and a suitable analysis technique was used to develop the research solution.

Materials used were – wastewater, pipette, mercury salt, Sulfuric acid, potassium permanganate solution, coni flask, stirrer, thermometer, portable water, and heater.

100 ml of test water was added in 250 m conical flask, add 10ml of 2N sulfuric acid solution, Add 10ml of 0.05N potassium permanganate solution, add a piece of boiler to enable auto stirring while heating, heat to boil for 10 minutes while watching the colour-if the colour is strongly weakened, add few millilitres of Potassium permanganate solution, After boiling, use the pipet to add 10ml of 0.05N oxalic acid gently while manually stirring until you sense a discoloured solution, repeat the experiment with portable water. Calculate the correction factor. Compare results.


2.1 Risk Assessment

In large terms, risk assessment is the procedure in which the dangers set by inbuilt risks associated with procedures or circumstances are guaged either quantitatively or subjectively. Environmental Risk Assessments (ERA) are done to break down the effect of an operator on people (Health Risk Assessment) and environments (Ecological Risk Assessment). They address a wide scope of dangers, receptors and terminus: an ERA can concentrate on natural, substance, radiation as well as physical dangers towards effects on receptors, for example, (people or populace), fauna and vegetation (both single species or entire biological systems), and materials. Everything about hazard receptors distinctive end are indicated: for instance mortality and dismalness in human wellbeing evaluation, property misfortune in flame, income misfortune for individuals relying upon the hurt biological system in the financial effects appraisal, eradication or all out catch in natural hazard appraisal.

Subject on which dangers, receptors, and end that ought to be investigated, the grouping and way to deal with being connected in ERA will fluctuate. An adjusted methodology of ERA is required since a far-reaching clarification of the principle errands and strategies in hazard examination is outlandish.

2.2 Quantitative and Qualitative Risk Assessment Methods

Subject to the highlights of the issue under audit and the superfluity and kind of information required, the analyzer needs to choose the utilization of a subjective, semi-quantitative or quantitative methodology. All strategies have their own arrangement of potential techniques that can be utilized for every one of the succeeding degrees of the hazard examination.

2.3 Qualitative Risk Assessment

In spite of the fact that the main part of the exertion in creating strategies for hazard examination has been routed to quantitative techniques, basic parts of hazard much of the time require subjective assessment. Qualitative risk analysis may utilize “master” supposition to evaluate likelihood (or recurrence) and outcome (or effects) regularly through semantic articulations. In light of master judgment distinctive subjective outcome classes can be characterized as far as for instance high, medium, low, and so on. The equivalent should be possible for subjective likelihood classifications as far as articulations as likely, may happen, not likely, all around far-fetched. This abstract methodology might be adequate to evaluate the danger of a framework, contingent upon the choices to be made and accessible assets. Formal procedures for master sentiment elicitation have been created to give consistency in subjective data gathering (for example Delphi strategy). Concerning subjective vulnerability gauges, one needs to depend on abstract assessments of vulnerability.

Inside the quantitative and subjective methodologies a wide scope of strategies exist, each with its very own attributes, favorable circumstances and detriments and fields of utilization.

The determination of a quantitative or subjective strategy relies on the accessibility of information for assessing the peril and the dimension of examination expected to make a sure decision. [1] Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is unambiguously characterized as a “recurrence x impact” and gives a more uniform comprehension among various people than subjective hazard evaluation. QRA is the most right and reasonable methodology and joins the benefits of different systems. Notwithstanding, not the majority of the pertinent hazard sources and receptor explicit angles can be canvassed in quantitative terms and quality information basic for exact outcomes are not constantly accessible. In this sense, a less point by point examination dependent on the utilization of subjective investigation strategies can be suitable. A semi-quantitative methodology, utilizing quantitative strategies if conceivable and subjective techniques if necessary, is a realistic and regularly the most appropriate methodology.


Dependant on which dangers, receptors and end-guides one needs toward research, the various advances and strategies to be utilized in ERA will vary. This represents an adjusted methodology of ERA is required and that a general depiction of the key assignments and strategies in hazard investigation is absurd. There are anyway various bringing together standards hidden all hazard evaluations. Regardless of the assorted variety of methodologies, we can express that by and large seven stages can be distinguished tending to the key inquiries in an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA): Problem Formulation, Hazard Identification, Release Assessment, Exposure Assessment, Consequence or Effect Assessment, Risk Characterisation and Estimation and Risk Evaluation.[3, 4]

2.2.1 Hazard Identification

The motivation behind this progression is to recognize the majority of the possible and important risks that could make hurt the receptor of intrigue. The distinguishing proof may include the foundation of those specialists that may cause mischief and working in reverse to recognize how this damage could happen. On the other hand, danger Identification may emerge from analyzing every single imaginable result of routine activity and distinguishing the outcomes from typical operation.[4] The perils identification step is firmly connected to the subsequent stage, discharge evaluation as in these means are both hazard source related while the introduction and outcome steps are chance receptor related. Frequently, no refinement is made between risk distinguishing proof and discharge evaluation, and is essentially named as “danger Identification”.

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