Types of Tourism
There are three types of tourism: domestic, outbound and inbound. Domestic tourism is when you travel within the country normally for a day trip; for example, someone traveling from London to Brighton for the day would be a domestic tourist. An outbound tourist is when someone travels outside the country. So someone travelling from the UK to France would be an outbound tourist to the UK. An Inbound tourist is when someone travels to another country; for example, someone travelling to Spain from France would be an inbound tourist to France.
However these three categories have been split further into another three sub-categories stating the purposes for travel, these are: leisure, business and visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Someone travelling for holiday, cultural events, recreation, sport, religion and study would be classed as travelling for leisure. Someone travelling for business would be if they were meeting with an overseas client, meetings, conferences and exhibitions. Visiting friends and family accounts for many trips especially within the UK.
Accommodation can be both serviced: your meals are on offer and you room is cleaned, or non-serviced: you look after yourself which includes cleaning, shopping and cooking.
Hotels can be both independently owned or chain owned. The chain hotels tend to have the same layout and offer the same facilities no matter where you are because they are more impersonal but provide high quality consistently around the world, such as the Mercure Hotel in London and Paris. Also, hotels tend to cater for both business and leisure customers with a large range of products, such as a conference room for the business tourists, and activities for the leisure customers. Domestic tourism tends to be better independently owned hotels as the tourists will probably be visiting family and friends or staying for a limited time so they don’t need a wide range of facilities available, just the basics. However a chain hotel may also be used such as a travel lodge as this may be cheap and it offers the minimum products.
Except for if the tourist is travelling for business purposes, as it is most likely that the company will be paying for the hotel so the person may upgrade themselves and stay in luxury rather than a travel lodge. Inbound tourism is better for hotels that are part of a large chain as they will be well known to people from other countries; most of the time, whether the tourist is travelling for leisure or business, they will want to stay in a luxury hotel over a hotel with less available to them. Independently owned hotels usually reflect the countries own style whereas chain owned hotels look the same in every country and make the customers feel more at home.
Outbound tourism tends to benefit independently owned hotels within the home country as some tourists stay over in a hotel near the airport so that they don’t have to travel far the next day or get up as early as some tourist’s class this as their holiday starting early. As they are staying there for normally 1 night they will just stay at an independent hotel as it will normally be cheaper but sometimes a chain hotel such as a travel lodge or a premier inn will be cheaper. Guest accommodation
Guest accommodation is normally extra space that homeowners have and want to earn money for; this includes guesthouses, farmhouses and bed and breakfast accommodation. Moreover, there is also the option for self-catering, this normally occurs when people rent out there apartments or holiday cottages however this is also available at holiday parks. Kitchens and appliances are provided for the self-catering option. Many tourists consider guest accommodation as it is seen as charming and an opportunity to experience local culture. Domestic tourists enjoy guest accommodation as it gives them the opportunity to experience local culture within the town they are visiting, and most of the time they will probably be eating out at restaurants or pubs so they won’t need to be given 3 meals a day at their accommodation.
Bed and breakfasts are a good option for domestic tourists as they won’t have to go out for breakfast but it gives them the chance to look around the town, eat out and enjoy their time. Inbound tourists may stay at guest accommodation if they are staying in a small town or village and want to see what the local culture is like. This would give them the opportunity to experience more than if they were to stay in a hotel as hotels can be quite impersonal, so by staying in guest accommodation they will feel more included and like they are getting a one-to-one experience with the staff of the accommodation. Outbound tourists may stay at guest accommodation if they are traveling to the airport as it can be cheaper than a hotel. They would also not need the set meal times like you get at a hotel as they would probably be leaving early and would only be there for one meal. By this logic it would seem more appropriate if outbound tourists stayed at a bed and breakfast the day before travelling to a different country. Transport-road
Most cars in the UK are privately owned and are used for domestic day trip travel. This allows people to travel at their own pace and take their own route than if they were to take a coach or train. In addition, many people choose to hire a car when abroad, leading to the growth in the hire-car sector. Popular hire- car groups in UK include Hertz, Avis and Europcar have all expanded overseas and now have international operations. As the car-hire sector grows, the technology along with it does too. This means that it has now become easier and more convenient for customers as you can now pre-book by telephone or on-line. You also have the option for airport pick-up and drop-off and you also don’t need to drop it off at the same place that you picked it up (one way rental). There is also a wide range of vehicles available to suit a range of people and all insurances are included within a fixed price meaning that there are no hidden costs.
Domestic tourists are most likely to use their own private car for travel as they will most likely be taking day trips and don’t want to have to limit themselves to what they can do because they have to be somewhere at a certain time to get home. Moreover, if they are spending longer in one place, for example a week, then they would also want their own private car so that they can go and do what they want and aren’t restricted to certain times due to public travel. Inbound tourists would hire a car if they wanted to travel and take small day trips during their visit to certain places and didn’t want to have to change bus or train to get to where they are going and take more time out of their day travelling rather than doing the things they want to.
They may have brought their own car over from their home country if they travelled by ferry, such as from France. People travelling for business purposes might hire a car as their company would pay for it and they wouldn’t have to wait for public transport or a taxi. Outbound tourists may use their own car if they are travelling by ferry and want to use a private car rather than use coaches with other people. However they may also use a hire car when travelling to the airport as they could drop it off at the car centre and won’t have to pay for their own car to be kept in the car park whilst they are away. Coaches
Coaches today are very luxurious as they now can come with comfortable toilets, refreshments and DVD facilities. They have also adapted to meet customers changing needs, for example, a fly-coach option is now available so as to reduce the initial journey time, but have the benefit of coach travel for touring. There are several coach networks all over the UK for people to travel to different towns and cities and also into Europe; National express is a good example of this. By travelling by coach customers have the opportunity to see places that wouldn’t have seen if they travelling within a private car. Domestic tourists may use this option if they are not able to drive (pensioners) or unable to afford to drive (students). A coach option can be relatively cheap and you may not want to use your car whilst you are visiting another town so by travelling by coach you would spend less than if you were to travel by train, however it will take longer to travel by coach.
Inbound tourists may use a coach so that they can go on tours and see more of the country or town that you are visiting. They may also use a coach to travel to their hotel or accommodation as this will be cheaper than taking a taxi. Moreover, they would also get more information about where they are staying and the places that they see than if you were to travel in a private hire-car. Outbound tourists would use a coach when travelling to the airport or their port that they are leaving by ferry as this means that they would not have to pay for their car to stay in a car park whilst they are away. They would also not have to pay for diesel or petrol bringing down their costs of travel even more. This would appeal to more people that lived far away from their travelling destination. Transport- rail
The national network rail is own and run by Network Rail whose job it is to maintain the train lines and lay new tracks when needed. There are 29
Train-operating systems (TOCs) in the UK who lease their trains from rolling-stock companies and who compete for franchises to run each passenger service. The department of transport issues the franchises and also monitors the TOCs to make sure that everything is running well and that passengers are safe; they are also able to fine the TOCs if they don’t meet the agreed standards. TOCs are commercial companies and aim to make a profit such as Virgin Trains and South West Trains. However they do still receive grants from the government. Other aspects of the rail system are the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway and the Eurostar. Eurostar operates from St Pancras International in London and Ashford in Kent to Paris, Lille and Brussels transporting passengers through the channel tunnel.
Eurostar is owned by London and Continental Railways, and run by a management company. Domestic tourists use the railway service when travelling either to a place quite far away as the train is the quickest land public transportation or when travelling through densely populated areas such as London as the streets can be too busy to use the roads and there is a congestion charge when using your car within central London. Travelling by train is a good option if you want to spend a day trip somewhere and it will take a while to get to if you uses the roads. Depending on where in the country you take the train and at what time (peak times) the price will vary so it can be relatively cheap if travelling from somewhere such as North Devon to Exeter on a Saturday morning, but quite expensive if travelling from London to Liverpool at 5 o’clock on a weekday.
However the time it takes to travel by train is a lot less than by road so this option does appeal to people despite the price. Inbound tourists will not usually have a car or bus pass so the next option is to travel by train. If inbound tourists are travelling around somewhere like London, they have the option of travelling to almost anywhere in central and greater London. During the day prices can be quite cheap and a day ticket to use the London Underground for an adult is £8.80, this relatively cheap to be able to travel at any time as many times needed in one day. Outbound tourists might use the rail service when travelling to the airport as it is the quickest way to travel there by land, this would decrease the initial travel time as travelling by road takes longer.
There are many trains travelling all over the country making it easy for anyone to get to anywhere they need by taking multiple train lines, this makes it easier for people that are travelling from quite far to reach the airport or ship port. Outbound tourists from the UK may also use the Eurostar to travel from London to France as it is cheaper than flying. The Eurostar is quite luxurious as there are comfy chairs, a bar to get food and drink and comfortable toilets seats.
The UK is an island surrounded by water so transport by sea as always been an important art of the travel and tourism industry. Ferries
The English Channel used to be the main mode of transport to the continent cross the sea; however 50% of the market was taken by the channel tunnel, but passenger ferries have also had some of the market taken by low-cost airlines offering cheap fares. It is often cheaper to fly and hire a car rather than taking your own vehicle. Dover is the biggest port in the UK and in 1997 over 21 million passengers passed through it; however, by 2003 numbers had declined to just under 15 million and have not since increased. Other ferry operators within the Channel include Sea France and Brittany Ferries. Brittany Ferries operates on longer routes to France and Spain, for example Poole to Cherbourg, Plymouth to Santander and Portsmouth to Caen, St Malo or Cherbourg. Ferries also travel to the Channel Islands, for example Jersey and Guernsey. One of the main companies offering transport across the Channel is P&O, as some operators such as Hoverspeed and Speedferries have ceased operating. Not all ferry travel is across the Channel, some other are:
Stranraer to Belfast
Fleetwood to Larne
Fishguard to Rosslare
Holyhead to Dun Laoghaire
Hull to Zeebrugge
Hull to Rotterdam
Holyhead to Dublin
Pemboke to Rosslare
Douglas to Liverpool
Ryde to Portsmouth
Domestic tourists would use ferries when travelling within their own country, for example if you live within the UK you may take a ferry from St Mawes to Falmouth or Liverpool to London. A ferry may be used as it can be quicker than travelling by car and you have the option of taking your vehicle with you. Ferries are a good way to travel if taking a day trip if you are travelling to a small island off the coast. They can also be a way of cutting time off of your travel if you are travelling by car as you may need to get from one end of the coast to another and the mouth of a river is in the way, for example if you are travelling from Falmouth to St Mawes. Inbond tourists might use ferries as a way of travelling around the country when travelling close to water.
They could also be used when giving tours, for example: if an inbound tourists visiting the UK wanted to go on a tour of london and see some of the sights, they might take a ferry as this would give a tour of all of the attractions by the river Thames; this is considered a scenic route as you wouldn’t have to worry about the congestion on the roads. Outbound touristsmight use ferries to travel to a different country; such as someone travelling from the UK to France, they would use the channel ferry to travel from the country.
A ferry might also be used by outbound tourists when travelling to the airport or dock to leave the country. This would mostly be used by people who are travelling by public transport in areas surrounded by water as this would not be applicable to someone who lived in greater London travelling to heathrow airport, however this would be an option for someone who lived on an island or across a large river, for example: if you live on the isle of wight. Cruises
The cruise industry is enjoying steady growth and as a result of this companies are investing in new liners. Some of the new ships include the Azura, Queen Elizabethand Seabourn Odyssey introduced in 2010. May cruise companiesyou may have heard of are P&O Cruises, Cunard, Royal Caribbean and Princess. In 2008 the number of Europeans taking cruise holiday reached an all-time high, with the UK topping the list with the greatest number of cruise passengers, reaching 1.5 million.Cruise companies are doing their best to reach new markets, such as families and younger people, rather than just the older age groups who traditionally take cruises. If there is a business failure then the Passenger Shipping Association (PSA) provides finanicial protection to their customers.
River cruises are also growing in popularity especially those on the rivers Rhine, Moselle, Danube and the Nile. Domestic tourists may use cruises when travelling around their own country and wanting to see other places along the coast. This would seem a more appealing option than travelling by coach or car as they would have activities to do on board whilst traveling to the next destination rather than being stuck in one position, they would also have somewhere to sleep on board whilst still travelling rather thyan having to stop at night and finding somewhere to stay. This would also cut time off of the trip as a whole. Inbound tourists may use a cruise when visiting another country to visit more places during their trip rather than staying in one place. This would be a good option for anyone who wants to see lots of different sights and visit different places.
Cruises will also allow people to relax whilst travelling usually by a swimming pool or doing activities, this is a good option for families as sometimes the children want to just play rather than looking around a town, so it is a good way for families to have the option. Outbound tourist may use a cruise when leaving the country to travel to another country. People will travel to a dockland around the UK such as in Portsmouth, Liverpool or Dover and pick up a cruise ship to start their journey. They would visit different countries and leave those countries on the ship, most of the tourists time would be spent on the ship as all of their possessions are on the ship as well as a room and catering. However when visiting another country a day or two would be spent exploring the towns and experiencing the local culture and then returing to the ship at a certain time I order to leave and visit the next destination. Transport-Air
The major organisation in airport ownership in the UK is the British Airport Authority (BAA); it is owned by Airport Development and Investment (ADI) Limited. BAA owns the airports at:
Naples (65% stake)
Over 140 million people travel through the six BAA airports every year in the UK. They also have stakes in other airports outside the UK, plus retail management contracts at two airports in the USA. Regional airports have grown in popularitywith airports such as Leeds Bradford and East Midlands offering many short-haul flights. An airport provides products and services to various groups of people and businesses, this can be complex but profitable. Some examples of the products and services provided by an airport are: Airlines are provided with the space and services to operate their flights. Customers are provided facilites such as restaurants and shops. Other businesses are provided with a location in which they can operate, for example, car hire,retailing or groung handling. The airports work hard to keep all of its groups and customers happy whilst earning revenue.
Domestic tourists may use an airport when wanting to travel to a different destination by using a range of airlines, coach, bus or train. There are a range of travel options from an airport as they all interlink to make travelling easier for tourists, this is because airports are one of the most popular destinations within a country where tourists from the same country and internationally meet making it the perfect place to have a range of travelling options available at the tourists’ disposal. Inbound tourists use an airport when entering another country; this is where they gain entry to that country by going through immergration and having their passports checked. There is also the option for partaking in some duty free shopping, having something to eat or continuing on the tourists’ travels.
There is the option for joining a conecting flight, taking a train, hiring a car or using another form of transport. Outbound tourists may use an airport when traveling out of the country by airplane. Here they are checked in with their chosen airline and have the opportunity to do some duty free shopping just like if you were travelling from Heathrow airport from terminal 5. Here, the customer would have access to over 40 stores with duty free shopping along with a selection of restaurants and cafes before boarding their British Airways flight to wherever they are travelling to. Airlines
All UK airlines are privately owned. British Airways (BA) is one of the most famous airlines in the world and is the largestin the UK and in terms of international scheduled services. It flies to more than 200 worldwide , however, in 2009 its passenger numbers had fallen by 4.3% due to the recession. British Airways main bases are at the London airports Gatwick and Heathrow terminal 5. The airline’s products include four different types of cabin service ranging from Economy to Club World. Other major UK airlines include British Midland and Virgin Atlantic, these are scheduled airlines; there are also many charter airlines such as Monarch and Thompson, however, Monarch also operates a a sechuled service. Hundreds of other airlines from all over the world fly in and out of UK airports, paying for the services they use.
Domestic tourists may use airlines if they want to travel within the same country but want a fast alternative to driving. Such as traveling within the UK from london to Edingburgh with Virgin Atlantic from £90 return ticket. By travelling by plane the use of a vehicle to travel to their destination would not be needed. With the cost of petrol/deisel to travel by car, plus food and other neccessities when travelling this would cost almost the same as flying, therefore if someone wants to spend more time in edingburgh for their trip rather then travelling then this is a good option. Inbound tourists would use an airline when entering another country by plane. They would have had the option to purchase food or products on the plane when flying to their destination. They would of also received a good level of customer service when flying to the country to make sure that the customer has had the best experience possible and will hopefully fly again with that airline.
Outbound tourists would use an airline when leaving a country to visit another. The first point of contact for them would be at check-in inside the airport, they would not have contact with that airline staff again until boarding where they will take their seats on the plane. A safety presentation will be given to the passengers on board the plane, they will then be offered food and products to purchase on the aircraft. The whole time they have contact with any of the staff from the airline they will be judging them on their customer service skills and their overall experience flying with that company, this will determine if the airline gets repeat customers or not, how popular they are to consumers and their market share within the airline industry. Low-cost airlines
The idea behind low-cost airlines is too keep costs as low as possible, with few or no ‘extras’ on offer to the customer without further charge, this is so the low-cost operators can offer cheap flights. The low-cost airlines are scheduled airlines, for example easyjet and Ryanair. Domestic tourists may use a low-cost airline if they are taking a short-haul flight as they wouldn’t need any extras, eliminating most or all hidden costs. Most of the time holdall baggage would not be needed cutting down the time spent at the airport.
This is a good option for people travelling for business purposes as it is quicker with less hassle to claim baggage when entering arrivals at the customers destination. Inbound tourists would use a low-cost airline if they wanted to pay less for flights. By doing this more money can be spent on accommodation or used for spending on their trip. Also with less baggage in the holdall there will be less people trying to get their bags at baggage claim making it easier for inbound tourists to get their bags and leave. Outbound tourist may use a low-cost airline as they would spend less time at the airport as the airline want to keep costs down. This means that the waiting time to board the plane would be cut down resulting in the travel time being cut down. Regulation of air travel
Te Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is an independent statutory body who regulates the UK aviation sector. The Air Travel Users Council (AUC) is the UK’s consumer council for air travellers; it recieves its funding from the CAA. Its job is to act as the independent representative for air passengers and aims to assist the CAA in helping the interests of passengers. National Air Traffic Services (NATS) is responsible for air traffic control. It is a public/private partnership owned by the government and looks after the UK airspace, but also the eastern part of the North Atlantic. NATS handles more than 2 million flights a yea, carrying over 220 million passengers. The major air traffic control centres are at Swanick in Hampshire and Prestwick in Ayrshire, but there are also contrl services at the country’s major airports. Domestic tourists, inbound tourists and domestic tourists would all be interested with the AUC as they look out for air passengers and make sure that the CAA are keeping an interest with their assengers no matter where they are traveling from or visiting.
The UK officially has 6500 visitor attractions which are important to both the domestic tourism market and the inbound tourism market. There are hundreds of different types of attractions, however they can be divided as follows. Natural Attractions
These include beaches, lakes and landscapes; in order to protect them some are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs), National Parks or Heritage Coasts. Domestic tourists visit these natural attractions as day trips because it is a cheap way to have a day out. These attractions are a good way to spend time with the family as you would only need to pay for petrol/deisel and food whereas with other attractions you have to pay for entry, food, drinks and travel. It is also a way to experience nature at its best as when living in a city or town natural attractions are hard to come by. Inbound tourists may visit natural attractions as a way to experience the culture, countryside and the nature at a low cost. Outbound tourists wuld not visit a natural attraction if they were leaving the country, however they might visit one before they leave the country. Heritage Attractions
In the UK there is a range of historic houses, often cared for by the National Trust or English Heritage. There are also museums and galleries such as Tate Britain and Tate Modern, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the National History Museum in London and the National Media Museum in Bradford. Domestic tourists visit heritage attractions as a way to see the history within their own country. Most museums are free and are a great learner resource for schools and people who have an interest within a certain subject matter. Inbound tourists would visit heritage attractions to learn about that countries history and culture. Most are free or charge a small fee but it is a great day out and is a popular option for most tourists. Domestic tourists would only visit a heritage attraction before they left to travel to a different country. Purpose-built Attractions
Purpose-built attractions can be historic also, such as museums as most are purpose-built. Some popular purpose-built attractions include theme parks, for example the theme park Thorpe Park. Domestic tourists may visit a theme
park for a day out with friends and family as a treat as some can be really expensive to visit. However, most theme parks give you special deals such as a child under a certain age/height can enter for free, for example, thorpe park offers you a bounce back pass where you visit the park one day at full price but can purchase a pass to get to in the following day at a reduced rate. They also offer you the chance to purchase a merlin pass that can get you into a range of attractions around the UK for free when you purchase the pass. Inbound may visit a theme park for a day trip with children a a special day ouut. However some people visit a country just to go to a theme park such as Disney World or Disney Land. These holidays can cost a lot but are a good source of income for the parks. Outbound tourists may visit a purpose-built attraction before they leave a country to visit another. Events
Events such as the Edingburgh Festival and the Notting Hill Carnivalnattract many visitors. There are events in the business tourism sector too, such as the World Travel Market. Domestic tourists visit festivals and carnivals as they enjoy the atmosphere that surrounds the event and is a great day out. Some events are a great way to raise money to a certain cause or even to produce revenue. The Notting Hill Carnival is very famous for bringing together lots of different ethnicities to one event as celebrating how diverse London is, this attracts many tourists both Domestic and Inbound. Domestic tourists may visit an event before leaving the country. Associations
The British Association of Leisure Parks, Piers and Attractions (BALPPA) was founded in 1936, it is non-profit-making whose role is to represent the interests of owners, managers, suppliers and developers in the UK’s commercialleisure parks, piers, zoosand static attractions sector. The international Association of Amusements Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) is a similar organisation to BALPPA, but it is an international association and has members all over the world. The association promotes safe operations, global development, proffesional growth and commercial success in the amusement industry. Domestic, Inbound and Outbound tourists would all be interested in the IAAPA as this effects attractions all over the world, but only tourists who visit attractions in the UK would be interested with the BALPPA. Tour Operators
The role of tour operator is to put together all the different components that make up a holiday and sell them to the consumer as package deals. They make contracts with hoteliers, airlines and other transport companies to produce these package deals, these are then described in a brochure which is distributed either to travel agents or directly to customers. Mass-market tour operators
Mass-market tour operators dominated the outbound market for years, these include: Thomson, First Choice and Thomas Cook. Thomson and First Choice both belong t the parent company TUI. These major tour operators were considered to be mass-market tour operators as they sold similar holidays in packages that appealed to the majority of holidaymakers. However, specialist tour opperators sold more individually tailored holidays or specialised in one destination or activity, but today, many large tour operators also offer many specialist products. TUI AG is the largest travel group in the world, which does not just include tour operators. Thomson, for example, is also a travel agency brand and an airline; First Choice has a major travel agent in its portfolio and its own branded airline. First choice offers holidays in destinations such as Majorca, Menorca, the Canaries, Spain, Turkey, Greece and the Caribbean. Winter sports destinations include France, Austria, Italy, Andorra, Bulgaria and Switzerland.
Thomas Cook also has travel agencies, airlines and hotels as well as tour operator brands. Tour perators that offer air-inclusive packages are required by law to have Air Travel Organisers’ Licence (ATOL). This scheme protects air travellers and package holiday makers from losing money or being stranded abroad if air travel firms go out of business. When a tourist books a holiday the cost of this financial protection is included in the price. Any package firm that includes a flight should by law hold a licence.
Domestic tourists may use a tour operator when visiting a part of their own country that they have never seen before. They could then have a guided tour around an area that they want to visit and know more about. Inbound tourists may use a tour operator to help with their arrival to a new country, helping them to settle into their accommodation. They would also be given a tour of the local sights giving tourists an idea of things to do during their visit. Outbound tourists may use tour operators when travelling to their destination to leave the country as they would not have to find their own travel to the airport or docklands. Specialist tour operators
Some tour operators specialise in particular destination, or a product, such as a diving holiday. Specialist tour operators respond well to the trend for tailor-made holidays with their specialist products. Some tour operators specialise in a certain destination, for example, Anatolian Sky specialises in holidays in Turkey. Inbound tour operators cater for the needs of overseas visitors to the UK, an example is British Tours Ltd, which claims to be the longest-established inbound operator. It offers tours for different group sizes and has a ide variety of products icluding a Harry Potter tour. These tours are available in many languages. Domestic tour operators specialise in holidays within the UK for Uk residents, they include coach companies which place advertisments in the local newspapers. Similar to outbound operators they offer beach, city, touring and special-interest holidays. Tour operators association
UKinbound is the trade body which represents tour operators and tourism suppliers to the UK. It was founded in 1977 to represent the commercial and political interests of incoming tour operators and suppliers to British inbound tourism industry. It is a non-profit-making body governed by an elected council and funded by its members and from revenue-generating activities. The Assocciation of Independent Tour Operators (AITO) is an organisation which represents 160 of the UK’s specialist tour operators. AITO members are independent companies, most of which are owner-managed, specialising in particular destinations or types of holiday. The Federation of Tour Operators (FTO) is an organisation for outbound tour operators, its aim is to ensure the long term success of the air-inclusive holiday. Members pay annual subscribtion based on the size of their organisation. The FTO produces health and safty guidelines for tour operators. The FTO has always worked very closely with ABTA and the two organisation merged in 2008 to become ABTA- The Travel Association. Travel agents
The role of a travel agent is to give advice and information to sell bookings for a number of tour operators. They also sell flights, ferry bookings, car hire, insurance and accommodation as separate products. Travel agents may operate through:
A call centre
Most travel agents are part of a multiple chain and these dominate the market. Chains such as Thomson and Thomas Cook are linked to tour operators and may try to prioritise their own company’s products. ABTA- The travel assocciation has operators as members, in 3009 it had over 900 members and represented over 5000 travel agencies. There has been a reduction in the amount of agency branches in the past few years as customers choose to buy travel and tourism products through other means, particularly through travel websites. Business travel agents
Business travel agents specialise in the business market, they aim to handle all travel arrangements for large companies. ‘Implants’ are travel agents located within another business, they set up office within a company so that they are on hand to deal with travel arrangements for the company’s personnel. Doomestic, inbound and outbound tourists would only use a business travel agent if their was one within the company that they worked for and they were travelling for business needs. Call centres
More and more customers are booking holidays over the telephone or online rather than bu visiting a travel agent. Call centres are normaly in out-of-town areas where the rent and labour is cheaper, some companies have relocated to India to take advantage of the low costs.Some call centres are operator or airline owned and sell on behalf of that company only, others are specialist call centres and handle calls and bookings for many companies. Call centres rely on high staff productivity to be successful, they motivate staff through incentives such as bonuses on sales targets reached. Call answering time, call durations, sales and complaints ratios are carefully monitored. Domestic, Inbound and Outbound tourists would all use a call centre when booking a holiday as it can be less hassle then going into a travel agents centre. On-line travel agents
Websites are the most up-to-date means of distributing travel and tourism products and services. Domestic, Inbound aand Outbound tourists would all use on-line travel agents as, similar to call centres, it can be less hassle than going into travel agents centre. It is also easier to compare prices and deals.
Tourism development and promotion
The development and promotion of tourism in the UK is mostly undertaken by organisations in the public sector such as VisitBritain and VisitWales. Within the public sector in the UK, the Developmet for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is responsible for supporting the tourism industry at a national level. The Department for Transport looks after avition, railways, roads and the London Underground. The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has responsibility for sector skills councils and training organisations. The department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) is responsible for issues affecting the countryside, wildlife and waterways.
The UK has four tourist boards: VisitBritain, VisitScotland, the Northern Ireland Tourist Board (NITB) and VisitWales. VisitBritain reports to the DCMS; VisitWales reports to the National Assembly for Wales and VisitScotland reports to the Scottish Executive. The NITB reports to the Northern Ireland Assembly. The overseas offices work closely with British diplomatic and cultural staff, the local travel trade and media, to stimulate interest in the UK. Another example of the role of VisitBritain is its campaign to persuade high-spending tourists to come to the UK, it is imortant that inbound tourists spend money and boost the UK economy. Regional Development Agencies (RDAs)
RDA’s have responsibility for tourism in their regions and usually work closely with Regional Delivery Partners (RDPs). There are nine RDAs in England; an RDA has a regional economic and regional economic and regional tourism strategy. RDPs are responsible for delivering the strategies, sometime the partners are tourists boards with a different name to explain what they do. An example is VisitManchester, an organisation that looks after tourism development, business tourism, leisure touriism and isitor services in Manchester. The government replaced RDAs with local economic partnerships (LEPs), this happened in March 2012 with the LEPsto cover smaller areas than the RDAs. Local Authority tourism development
Local Authorities play an important part in supporting the tourism industry because tourism is a major contributor towards the economy. Most towns have have a Tourist Inormation Centre (TIC) subsidised by the local council. The TIC provies a full information service for both residents and visitors, it gives information on visitor attractions and on accommodations. It usually provides a booking service for accommodation and often incorporates a shop selling localy made crafts and gifts, as well as books of local interest. The shop is a way of generating funds for the local community. Trade associations and regulatory bodies
The Association of Independent Tour Operations (AITO), and other trade associations and regulatory bodies have a role to play in development and promotion. They represent the interests of their members and help them operate successfully in business. Ancillary services
This term refers to organisations that do not have a direct role in travel and tourism, but play a supporting role. Examples include insurance companies that offer travel insurance and car parks operators that provide parking facilities at airports as well as in other locations.
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